हा लेख/विभाग स्वत:च्या शब्दात विस्तार करण्यास मदत करा.
साचा चक्र मिळाले: साचा:Use Indian English
This came as result of the Indian National Congress (INC) withdrawing its support for British reforms following the Rowlatt Act of 18 March 1919—which suspended the rights of political prisoners in sedition trials, and was seen as a "political awakening" by Indians and as a "threat" by the British—and the Jallianwala Bagh massacre of 13 April 1919.
The movement was one of Gandhi’s first organized acts of large-scale satyagraha (civil disobedience). Gandhi's planning of the non-cooperation movement included persuading all Indians to withdraw their labour from any activity that "sustained the British government and also economy in India," including British industries and educational institutions. Through non-violent means, or Ahinsa, protesters would refuse to buy British goods, adopt the use of local handicrafts, and picket liquor shops. In addition to promoting "self-reliance" by spinning khadi, buying Indian-made goods only, and boycotting British goods, Gandhi's non-cooperation movement called for the restoration of the Khilafat (Khilafat movement) in Turkey and the end to untouchability. This resulted in publicly-held meetings and strikes (hartals), which led to the first arrests of both Nehru and his father, Motilal Nehru, on 6 December 1921.
The non-cooperation movement was among the broader movement for Indian independence from British rule and ended, as Nehru described in his autobiography, "suddenly" on 4 February 1922 after the Chauri Chaura incident. Subsequent independence movements were the Civil Disobedience Movement and the Quit India Movement.
Though intended to be non-violent, the movement was eventually called off by Gandhi in February 1922 following the Chauri Chaura incident, in which numerous policemen were murdered by a mob at Chauri Chaura, United Provinces. Nonetheless, the movement marked the transition of Indian nationalism from a middle-class basis to the masses.
- "Culture And Heritage - Freedom Struggle - The Non Cooperation Movement - Know India: National Portal of India". knowindia.gov.in. 2021-08-11 रोजी पाहिले.
- "Noncooperation movement." Encyclopædia Britannica, December 15, 2015. Retrieved 2021-08-10.
- Wright, Edmund, ed. 2006. "non-cooperation (in British India)." A Dictionary of World History (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780192807007.
- Tharoor, Nehru: The Invention of India (2003) p.26-36
- Wagner, Kim. Amritsar 1919 (2019) p.59
- Wagner, Kim. Amritsar 1919 (2019) p.243
- Ghosh, Durba (July 2017). "The Reforms of 1919: Montagu–Chelmsford, the Rowlatt Act, Jails Commission, and the Royal Amnesty". Gentlemanly Terrorists. Gentlemanly Terrorists: Political Violence and the Colonial State in India, 1919–1947 (इंग्रजी भाषेत). pp. 27–59. doi:10.1017/9781316890806.003. ISBN 9781316890806. 4 September 2019 रोजी पाहिले.
- "Nationalism in India" (PDF). India and the Contemporary World - II Textbook in History for Class X. NCERT. 2007. p. 38. ISBN 978-81-7450-707-5.
- Tharoor, Nehru: The Invention of India (2003) p.41-42
- Essay on Non-Cooperation Movement : Data Points
- Nehru. An Autobiography (1936). p.81