वैद्यकशास्त्रातील नोबेल पारितोषिक

विकिपीडिया, मुक्‍त ज्ञानकोशातून

वैद्यकशास्त्रातील नोबेल पारितोषिक (स्वीडिश:नोबेलप्राइसेट इ फिसियोतदजि एलर मेडिसिन) हे स्वीडनमधील कारोलिन्स्का इन्स्टिट्युटकडून दरवर्षी प्रदान करण्यात येणारे पारितोषिक आहे. आल्फ्रेड नोबेलने आपल्या मृत्युपत्रात लिहिल्याप्रमाणे हे पारितोषिक १९०१ पासून दरवर्षी दिले जाते. या शाखेतील पहिले पारितोषिक एमिल ऍडॉल्फ फोन बेह्रिंगला त्याच्या "रक्तपेशींद्वारे (प्लाझ्मा) उपचारपद्धतीसाठी, विशेषतः त्याच्या डिप्थेरियाविरुद्ध होणाऱ्या उपयोगासाठी, ज्याद्वारे वैद्यकशास्त्रातील एक नवे दालन खुले केले गेले व वैद्य व चिकित्सकांच्या हातात आजार आणि मृत्यूविरुद्ध लढण्यासाठी प्रभावी आयुध दिले गेले", देण्यात आले.

वैद्यकशास्त्रातील हे पारितोषिक रसायनशास्त्र, भौतिकशास्त्र, साहित्य, शांतता या इतर चार शाखांमधील पारितोषिकांबरोबर देण्यात येते. नोबेल फाउंडेशनद्वारे नियमन केली जाणारी ही पारितोषिके सहसा जगातील सर्वोच्च सन्मान समजली जातात. आल्फ्रेड नोबेल यांच्या मृत्युदिनी (डिसेंबर १०) हे पारितोषिक स्वीडनच्या राजाच्या हस्ते प्रदान केले जाते. त्यावेळी स्वीकारणाऱ्यास एक पदक, प्रमाणपत्र व बक्षिसरकमेची हमी दिली जाते.[१]

२००८ चे वैद्यकशास्त्रातील पारितोषिक हराल्ड झुअर हाउजनला सर्व्हिकल कॅन्सरला कारणीभूत असलेल्या मानवी पॅपिलोमा विषाणूच्या शोधाबद्दल आणि फ्रांस्वा बार-सिनूसीलुक माँतानिये यांना एड्सला कारणीभूत मानवी प्रतिकारशक्ती-अभाव (इम्युनोडेफिशियन्सी) विषाणूच्या (एच.आय.व्ही.) शोधांबद्दल देण्यात आले. १ कोटी स्वीडिश क्रोनाचे (अंदाजे १० लाख युरो; १४ लाख अमेरिकन डॉलर) बक्षिस तिघांत वाटून देण्यात येईल.

नोबेल पदकाच्या समोरच्या बाजूस कारोलिन्स्का इन्स्टिट्युट येथील नोबेल सभेचे पदक असा मजकूर व आल्फ्रेड नोबेलचे चित्र असते तर मागच्या बाजूस ग्रीक इतिहासातील जिनियस आपल्या मांडीत उघडे पुस्तक ठेवून खडकातील वाहणारे पाणी घेउन एका आजारी मुलीची तहान भागवत आहे असे निरुपण असते.[२]

List of Laureates[संपादन]

The following list includes the 189 Nobel Laureates in Physiology or Medicine since its inception in 1901.[३]

वर्ष नाव देश कारण
1901 Emil Adolf von Behring जर्मनी "for his work on serum therapy, especially its application against diphtheria, by which he has opened a new road in the domain of medical science and thereby placed in the hands of the physician a victorious weapon against illness and deaths"[४]
1902 रोनाल्ड रॉस United Kingdom "for his work on malaria, by which he has shown how it enters the organism and thereby has laid the foundation for successful research on this disease and methods of combating it"[५]
1903 Niels Ryberg Finsen डेन्मार्क "in recognition of his contribution to the treatment of diseases, especially lupus vulgaris, with concentrated light radiation, whereby he has opened a new avenue for medical science"[६]
1904 Ivan Petrovich Pavlov रशिया "in recognition of his work on the physiology of digestion, through which knowledge on vital aspects of the subject has been transformed and enlarged"[७]
1905 रॉबर्ट कॉख जर्मनी " क्षय रोगाबद्दल महत्त्वपूर्ण संशोधनाबद्दल"[८]
1906 Camillo Golgi
Santiago Ramón y Cajal
Italy
स्पेन
"in recognition of their work on the structure of the nervous system"[९]
१९०७ Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran फ्रांस "in recognition of his work on the role played by protozoa in causing diseases"[१०]
१९०८ Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov
Paul Ehrlich
रशिया
जर्मनी
"in recognition of their work on immunity"[११]
१९०९ Emil Theodor Kocher Switzerland "for his work on the physiology, pathology and surgery of the thyroid gland"[१२]
१९१० Albrecht Kossel जर्मनी "in recognition of the contributions to our knowledge of cell chemistry made through his work on proteins, including the nucleic substances"[१३]
१९११ Allvar Gullstrand स्वीडन "for his work on the dioptrics of the eye"[१४]
१९१२ Alexis Carrel फ्रांस "in recognition of his work on vascular suture and the transplantation of blood vessels and organs"[१५]
१९१३ Charles Robert Richet फ्रांस "in recognition of his work on anaphylaxis"[१६]
१९१४ Robert Bárány Hungary /Austria "for his work on the physiology and pathology of the vestibular apparatus"[१७]
पुरस्कार नाही
१९१६
१९१७ पुरस्कार नाही
१९१८ पुरस्कार नाही
१९१९ Jules Bordet बेल्जियम "for his discoveries relating to immunity"[१८]
१९२० Schack August Steenberg Krogh डेन्मार्क "for his discovery of the capillary motor regulating mechanism" (for showing that the gas exchange in the lungs is ordinary diffusion)[१९]
१९२१ पुरस्कार नाही
1922 Archibald Vivian Hill United Kingdom "for his discovery relating to the production of heat in the muscle"[२०]
Otto Fritz Meyerhof जर्मनी "for his discovery of the fixed relationship between the consumption of oxygen and the metabolism of lactic acid in the muscle"[२०]
1923 Frederick Grant Banting
John James Richard Macleod
Canada
United Kingdom
"for the discovery of insulin"[२१]
1१९२४ Willem Einthoven Netherlands "for the discovery of the mechanism of the electrocardiogram"[२२]
१९२५ पुरस्कार नाही
१९२६ Johannes Andreas Grib Fibiger डेन्मार्क "for his discovery of the Spiroptera carcinoma"[२३]
१९२७ Julius Wagner-Jauregg Austria "for his discovery of the therapeutic value of malaria inoculation in the treatment of dementia paralytica"[२४]
१९२८ Charles Jules Henri Nicolle फ्रांस "for his work on typhus"[२५]
1929 Christiaan Eijkman Netherlands "for his discovery of the antineuritic vitamin"[२६]
Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins United Kingdom "for his discovery of the growth-stimulating vitamins"[२६]
1930 Karl Landsteiner Austria "for his discovery of human blood groups"[२७]
Otto Heinrich Warburg जर्मनी "for his discovery of the nature and mode of action of the respiratory enzyme"[२८]
1932 Sir Charles Scott Sherrington
Edgar Douglas Adrian
United Kingdom
United Kingdom
"for their discoveries regarding the functions of neurons"[२९]
1933 Thomas Hunt Morgan अमेरिकेची संयुक्त संस्थाने "for his discoveries concerning the role played by the chromosome in heredity"[३०]
1934 George Hoyt Whipple
George Richards Minot
William Parry Murphy
अमेरिकेची संयुक्त संस्थाने
अमेरिकेची संयुक्त संस्थाने
अमेरिकेची संयुक्त संस्थाने
"for their discoveries concerning liver therapy in cases of anaemia"[३१]
1935 Hans Spemann जर्मनी "for his discovery of the organizer effect in embryonic development"[३२]
1936 Sir Henry Hallett Dale
Otto Loewi
United Kingdom;
जर्मनी 1903: Austria 1946: अमेरिकेची संयुक्त संस्थाने
"for their discoveries relating to chemical transmission of nerve impulses"[३३]
1937 Albert Szent-Györgyi von Nagyrapolt Hungary "for his discoveries in connection with the biological combustion processes, with special reference to vitamin C and the catalysis of fumaric acid"[३४]
1938 Corneille Jean François Heymans Belgium "for the discovery of the role played by the sinus and aortic mechanisms in the regulation of respiration"[३५]
1939 Gerhard Domagk जर्मनी "for the discovery of the antibacterial effects of prontosil"[३६]
१९४० पुरस्कार नाही
१९४१ पुरस्कार नाही
१९४२ पुरस्कार नाही
1943 Carl Peter Henrik Dam Denmark "for his discovery of vitamin K"[३७]
Edward Adelbert Doisy United States "for his discovery of the chemical nature of vitamin K"[३७]
1944 Joseph Erlanger
Herbert Spencer Gasser
अमेरिकेची संयुक्त संस्थाने
अमेरिकेची संयुक्त संस्थाने
"for their discoveries relating to the highly differentiated functions of single nerve fibres"[३८]
1945 सर अलेक्झांडर फ्लेमिंग
Ernst Boris Chain
Sir Howard Walter Florey
युनायटेड किंगडम;
जर्मनी /United Kingdom;
Australia /United Kingdom
" पेनिसिलीन च्या शोधाबद्दल व त्याचा प्रतिजैविक म्हणून वापराच्या शोधाबद्दल"[३९]
1946 Hermann Joseph Muller अमेरिकेची संयुक्त संस्थाने "for the discovery of the production of mutations by means of X-ray irradiation"[४०]
1947 Carl Ferdinand Cori
Gerty Theresa Cori, née Radnitz
Czechoslovakia /अमेरिकेची संयुक्त संस्थाने;
Czechoslovakia /अमेरिकेची संयुक्त संस्थाने
"for their discovery of the course of the catalytic conversion of glycogen"[४१]
Bernardo Alberto Houssay Argentina "for his discovery of the part played by the hormone of the anterior pituitary lobe in the metabolism of sugar"[४१]
1948 Paul Hermann Müller Switzerland "for his discovery of the high efficiency of DDT as a contact poison against several arthropods"[४२]
1949 Walter Rudolf Hess Switzerland "for his discovery of the functional organization of the interbrain as a coordinator of the activities of the internal organs"[४३]
Antonio Caetano De Abreu Freire Egas Moniz Portugal "for his discovery of the therapeutic value of leucotomy in certain psychoses"[४३]
1950 Edward Calvin Kendall
Tadeusz Reichstein
Philip Showalter Hench
अमेरिकेची संयुक्त संस्थाने;
Poland /Switzerland;
अमेरिकेची संयुक्त संस्थाने
"for their discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects"[४४]
1951 Max Theiler South Africa /Switzerland "for his discoveries concerning yellow fever and how to combat it"[४५]
1952 Selman Abraham Waksman Russia, 1916: अमेरिकेची संयुक्त संस्थाने "for his discovery of streptomycin, the first antibiotic effective against tuberculosis"[४६]
1953 Hans Adolf Krebs West जर्मनी /United Kingdom "for his discovery of the citric acid cycle"[४७]
Fritz Albert Lipmann West जर्मनी /अमेरिकेची संयुक्त संस्थाने "for his discovery of co-enzyme A and its importance for intermediary metabolism"[४७]
1954 John Franklin Enders
Thomas Huckle Weller
Frederick Chapman Robbins
अमेरिकेची संयुक्त संस्थाने
अमेरिकेची संयुक्त संस्थाने
अमेरिकेची संयुक्त संस्थाने
"for their discovery of the ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in cultures of various types of tissue"[४८]
1955 Axel Hugo Theodor Theorell स्वीडन "for his discoveries concerning the nature and mode of action of oxidation enzymes"[४९]
1956 André Frédéric Cournand
Werner Forssmann
Dickinson W. Richards
फ्रांस, 1941: United States;
West जर्मनी
United States
"for their discoveries concerning heart catheterization and pathological changes in the circulatory system"[५०]
1957 Daniel Bovet Switzerland /Italy "for his discoveries relating to synthetic compounds that inhibit the action of certain body substances, and especially their action on the vascular system and the skeletal muscles"[५१]
1958 George Wells Beadle
Edward Lawrie Tatum
United States
United States
"for their discovery that genes act by regulating definite chemical events"[५२]
Joshua Lederberg अमेरिकेची संयुक्त संस्थाने "for his discoveries concerning genetic recombination and the organization of the genetic material of bacteria"[५२]
1959 Severo Ochoa
Arthur Kornberg
Spain /अमेरिकेची संयुक्त संस्थाने;
अमेरिकेची संयुक्त संस्थाने
"for their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid"[५३]
1960 Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet
Peter Brian Medawar
Australia;
Brazil /United Kingdom
"for discovery of acquired immunological tolerance"[५४]
1961 Georg von Békésy Hungary "for his discoveries of the physical mechanism of stimulation within the cochlea"[५५]
1962 Francis Harry Compton Crick
James Dewey Watson
Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins
United Kingdom;
अमेरिकेची संयुक्त संस्थाने;
न्यू झीलँड /United Kingdom
"for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material"[५६]
1963 Sir John Carew Eccles
Alan Lloyd Hodgkin
Andrew Fielding Huxley
Australia
United Kingdom
United Kingdom
"for their discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane"[५७]
1964 Konrad Bloch
Feodor Lynen
West जर्मनी /अमेरिकेची संयुक्त संस्थाने;
West जर्मनी
"for their discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of the cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism"[५८]
1965 François Jacob
André Lwoff
Jacques Monod
फ्रांस
फ्रांस
फ्रांस
"for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis"[५९]
1966 Peyton Rous अमेरिकेची संयुक्त संस्थाने "for his discovery of tumour-inducing viruses"[६०]
Charles B. Huggins Canada /अमेरिकेची संयुक्त संस्थाने "for his discoveries concerning hormonal treatment of prostatic cancer"[६०]
1967 Ragnar Granit
Haldan Keffer Hartline
George Wald
Finland 1940: स्वीडन;
अमेरिकेची संयुक्त संस्थाने
अमेरिकेची संयुक्त संस्थाने
"for their discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye"[६१]
1968 Robert W. Holley
हर गोविंद खुराना
Marshall W. Nirenberg
United States;
भारत 1966: United States;
United States
"जनुकीय रचना व प्रथिनांच्या रचनेमधील त्यांचा महत्त्वाची कडी शोधण्याच्या महत्त्वपूर्ण कार्याबद्दल]]"[६२]
1969 Max Delbrück
Alfred Hershey
Salvador E. Luria
West जर्मनी /अमेरिकेची संयुक्त संस्थाने;
अमेरिकेची संयुक्त संस्थाने;
Italy
"for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses"[६३]
1970 Sir Bernard Katz
Ulf von Euler
Julius Axelrod
West जर्मनी 1941: United Kingdom;
स्वीडन
अमेरिकेची संयुक्त संस्थाने
"for their discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation"[६४]
1971 Earl W. Sutherland, Jr. अमेरिकेची संयुक्त संस्थाने "for his discoveries concerning the mechanisms of the action of hormones"[६५]
1972 Gerald M. Edelman
Rodney R. Porter
अमेरिकेची संयुक्त संस्थाने
United Kingdom
"for their discoveries concerning the chemical structure of antibodies"[६६]
1973 Karl von Frisch
Konrad Lorenz
Nikolaas Tinbergen
Austria
Austria
Netherlands
"for their discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behaviour patterns"[६७]
1974 Albert Claude
Christian de Duve
George E. Palade
Belgium;
Belgium;
Romania 1952: अमेरिकेची संयुक्त संस्थाने
"for their discoveries concerning the structural and functional organization of the cell"[६८]
1975 David Baltimore
Renato Dulbecco
Howard Martin Temin
अमेरिकेची संयुक्त संस्थाने;
Italy /अमेरिकेची संयुक्त संस्थाने;
अमेरिकेची संयुक्त संस्थाने
"for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell"[६९]
1976 Baruch S. Blumberg
D. Carleton Gajdusek
अमेरिकेची संयुक्त संस्थाने
अमेरिकेची संयुक्त संस्थाने
"for their discoveries concerning new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases"[७०]
1977 Roger Guillemin
Andrew Viktor Schally
फ्रांस 1965: अमेरिकेची संयुक्त संस्थाने;
अमेरिकेची संयुक्त संस्थाने
"for their discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the brain"[७१]
Rosalyn Yalow अमेरिकेची संयुक्त संस्थाने "for the development of radioimmunoassays of peptide hormones"[७१]
1978 Werner Arber
Daniel Nathans
Hamilton O. Smith
Switzerland
अमेरिकेची संयुक्त संस्थाने
अमेरिकेची संयुक्त संस्थाने
"for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics"[७२]
1979 Allan M. Cormack
Godfrey N. Hounsfield
South Africa 1966: अमेरिकेची संयुक्त संस्थाने;
United Kingdom
"for the development of computer assisted tomography"[७३]
1980 Baruj Benacerraf
Jean Dausset
George D. Snell
Venezuela 1943: अमेरिकेची संयुक्त संस्थाने;
फ्रांस;
अमेरिकेची संयुक्त संस्थाने
"for their discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions"[७४]
1981 Roger W. Sperry अमेरिकेची संयुक्त संस्थाने "for his discoveries concerning the functional specialization of the cerebral hemispheres"[७५]
David H. Hubel
Torsten N. Wiesel
Canada /अमेरिकेची संयुक्त संस्थाने
स्वीडन
"for their discoveries concerning information processing in the visual system"[७५]
1982 Sune Bergström
Bengt I. Samuelsson
John R. Vane
स्वीडन
स्वीडन
United Kingdom
"for their discoveries concerning prostaglandins and related biologically active substances"[७६]
1983 Barbara McClintock अमेरिकेची संयुक्त संस्थाने "for her discovery of mobile genetic elements"[७७]
1984 Niels K. Jerne
Georges J.F. Köhler
César Milstein
Denmark;
West जर्मनी;
Argentina
"for theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the immune system and the discovery of the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies"[७८]
1985 Michael S. Brown
Joseph L. Goldstein
अमेरिकेची संयुक्त संस्थाने
अमेरिकेची संयुक्त संस्थाने
"for their discoveries concerning the regulation of cholesterol metabolism"[७९]
1986 Stanley Cohen
Rita Levi-Montalcini
अमेरिकेची संयुक्त संस्थाने;
Italy /अमेरिकेची संयुक्त संस्थाने
"for their discoveries of growth factors"[८०]
1987 Susumu Tonegawa जापान "for his discovery of the genetic principle for generation of antibody diversity"[८१]
1988 Sir James W. Black
Gertrude B. Elion
George H. Hitchings
United Kingdom
अमेरिकेची संयुक्त संस्थाने
अमेरिकेची संयुक्त संस्थाने
"for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment"[८२]
1989 J. Michael Bishop
Harold E. Varmus
अमेरिकेची संयुक्त संस्थाने
अमेरिकेची संयुक्त संस्थाने
"for their discovery of the cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes"[८३]
1990 Joseph E. Murray
E. Donnall Thomas
अमेरिकेची संयुक्त संस्थाने
अमेरिकेची संयुक्त संस्थाने
"for their discoveries concerning organ and cell transplantation in the treatment of human disease"[८४]
1991 Erwin Neher
Bert Sakmann
जर्मनी
जर्मनी
"for their discoveries concerning the function of single ion channels in cells"[८५]
1992 Edmond H. Fischer
Edwin G. Krebs
Switzerland /अमेरिकेची संयुक्त संस्थाने;
अमेरिकेची संयुक्त संस्थाने
"for their discoveries concerning reversible protein phosphorylation as a biological regulatory mechanism"[८६]
1993 Richard J. Roberts
Phillip A. Sharp
United Kingdom
अमेरिकेची संयुक्त संस्थाने
"for their discoveries of split genes"[८७]
1994 Alfred G. Gilman
Martin Rodbell
अमेरिकेची संयुक्त संस्थाने
अमेरिकेची संयुक्त संस्थाने
"for their discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells"[८८]
1995 Edward B. Lewis
Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard
Eric F. Wieschaus
अमेरिकेची संयुक्त संस्थाने
जर्मनी
अमेरिकेची संयुक्त संस्थाने
"for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development"[८९]
1996 Peter C. Doherty
Rolf M. Zinkernagel
ऑस्ट्रेलिया
स्वित्झर्लंड
"for their discoveries concerning the specificity of the cell mediated immune defence"[९०]
1997 Stanley B. Prusiner अमेरिकेची संयुक्त संस्थाने "for his discovery of Prions - a new biological principle of infection"[९१]
1998 Robert F. Furchgott
Louis J. Ignarro
Ferid Murad
United States
अमेरिकेची संयुक्त संस्थाने
अमेरिकेची संयुक्त संस्थाने
"for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system"[९२]
1999 Günter Blobel जर्मनी 1987: अमेरिकेची संयुक्त संस्थाने "for the discovery that proteins have intrinsic signals that govern their transport and localization in the cell"[९३]
2000 Arvid Carlsson
Paul Greengard
Eric R. Kandel
स्वीडन
अमेरिकेची संयुक्त संस्थाने
अमेरिकेची संयुक्त संस्थाने
"for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system"[९४]
2001 Leland H. Hartwell
R. Timothy (Tim) Hunt
Sir Paul M. Nurse
United States
United Kingdom
United Kingdom
"for their discoveries of key regulators of the cell cycle"[९५]
2002 Sydney Brenner
H. Robert Horvitz
John E. Sulston
South Africa /United Kingdom 2003: Singapore[९६] (honorary);
अमेरिकेची संयुक्त संस्थाने;
United Kingdom
"for their discoveries concerning 'genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death'"[९७]
2003 Paul Lauterbur
Sir Peter Mansfield
United States
United Kingdom
"for their discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging"[९८]
2004 Richard Axel
Linda B. Buck
अमेरिकेची संयुक्त संस्थाने
अमेरिकेची संयुक्त संस्थाने
"for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system"[९९]
2005 Barry J. Marshall
J. Robin Warren
Australia
Australia
"for their discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its role in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease"[१००]
2006 Andrew Z. Fire
Craig C. Mello
अमेरिकेची संयुक्त संस्थाने
अमेरिकेची संयुक्त संस्थाने
"for their discovery of RNA interference - gene silencing by double-stranded RNA"[१०१]
2007 Mario Capecchi
Sir Martin Evans
Oliver Smithies
Italy /अमेरिकेची संयुक्त संस्थाने;
United Kingdom;
United Kingdom /अमेरिकेची संयुक्त संस्थाने
"for their discoveries for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells."[१०२]
2008 हराल्ड झुअर हाउसन जर्मनी "गळ्याच्या कर्करोगास कारणीभूत ठरणारा ह्युमन पापीलोमा ह्या विषाणूचा शोध लावल्याबद्दल "[१०३]
फ्रांन्कोईज बॅरे-सिनॉसी
लुक मोन्टॅग्नीअर
फ्रांस
फ्रांस
"एड्स या रोगास कारणीभूत असणाऱ्या एच्.आय.व्ही या विषाणूचा शोध लावण्याबद्दल"[१०३]

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बाह्य दुवे[संपादन]