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जिझिया कर

विकिपीडिया, मुक्‍त ज्ञानकोशातून

जिझिया ( अरबी: جِزْيَة jizyah / ǧizyah [d͡ʒɪzjæ] ) हा दरडोई वार्षिक कर आहे जो ऐतिहासिकदृष्ट्या धिम्मींवर आर्थिक शुल्काच्या रूपात आकारला जातो. हा कर इस्लामिक कायद्याद्वारे शासित असलेल्या राज्याच्या कायमस्वरूपी गैर-मुस्लिम प्रजेवर लागू होतो.[१] [२] [३] कुराण आणि हदीसमध्ये जिझियाचा दर किंवा रक्कम नमूद न करता उल्लेख आहे,[४] आणि इस्लामिक इतिहासात जिझियाचा वापर बदलला आहे. तथापि, विद्वान मोठ्या प्रमाणावर सहमत आहेत की सुरुवातीच्या मुस्लिम शासकांनी कर आकारणी आणि खंडणीच्या विद्यमान प्रणालींचे रूपांतर केले जे जिंकलेल्या जमिनींच्या पूर्वीच्या शासकांच्या अंतर्गत स्थापित केले गेले होते, जसे की बायझंटाईन आणि ससानियन साम्राज्यांच्या. [५] [६] [७] [८] [९] सुरुवातीला, जिझिया हा फक्त यहुदी आणि ख्रिश्चनांवर लागू केला जात होता, तर मूर्तिपूजकांना धम्मी पद्धतीमध्ये समाविष्ट केले जात नव्हते. जसजसा इस्लाम भारतीय उपखंडात पसरला तसतसा हिंदूंवरही जिझिया लागू करण्यात आला. हा हिंदूंचा छळ करण्याचा एक प्रकार होता.[१०] [११]

'खराज' जो कधीकधी जिझियासह अदलाबदली वापरला जात असे,[१२] [१३] [१४] गैर-मुस्लिम प्रजेवर आकारले जाणारे कर हे ऑट्टोमन साम्राज्य आणि भारतीय मुस्लिम सल्तनत यांसारख्या काही इस्लामिक राजवटींनी गोळा केलेल्या कमाईचे मुख्य स्रोत होते. [१५] जिझिया दर हा सहसा देणाऱ्याच्या आर्थिक क्षमतेवर अवलंबून एक निश्चित वार्षिक रक्कम होता.[१६] मुस्लिम आणि जिझिया यांच्यावरील करांची तुलना करणारे स्रोत वेळ, ठिकाण, विचाराधीन विशिष्ट कर आणि इतर घटकांवर अवलंबून त्यांच्या सापेक्ष भारानुसार भिन्न आहेत.[१][१७] [१८]

मुस्लिम कायदेतज्ज्ञांच्या अनुसार जिझिया भरण्यासाठी धिम्म समाजातील प्रौढ, मुक्त, विवेकी पुरुष असणे आवश्यक आहेत,[१९] स्त्रिया, मुले, वृद्ध, अपंग, आजारी, वेडे, भिक्षू, संन्यासी, गुलाम[२०][२१] [२२][२१][२३][२४] आणि मुस्तमिन - गैर-मुस्लिम परदेशी जे फक्त मुस्लिम भूमीत तात्पुरते वास्तव्य करतात यांना सूट दिली जाते.[२०][५] ज्या धम्मींनी लष्करी सेवेत सामील होण्याचा निर्णय घेतला त्यांना देखील पेमेंटमधून सूट देण्यात आली होती, [१] [२२][२५] [८] ज्यांना पैसे देणे परवडत नव्हते. [२२] [१७] [२६] इस्लामिक कायद्यानुसार, वृद्ध, अपंग इत्यादींना निवृत्तीवेतन देणे आवश्यक आहे आणि त्यांनी भीक मागायला जाऊ नये.

भारतातील जिझिया कर

[संपादन]

भारत इस्लामी साम्राज्याखाली आल्यावर हिंदू हे ज्यूही नाहीत वा ख्रिस्तीही नाहीत त्यामुळे जझिया लादून धिम्मी किंवा दुय्यम दर्जाचे संरक्षित नागरिक म्हणून राहण्यास मुभा देणे धर्मशास्त्रानुसार विहित आहे की नाही, यावर मोठा वाद निर्माण झाला होता. शेवटी सुलतानांनी हिंदूंना धिम्मी म्हणून वागविण्याचे ठरविले आणि त्यांच्याकडून जझिया वसूल करण्यास सुरुवात केली. काही अपवाद सोडता बहुतेक सुलतानांनी व बादशाहांनी हिंदूंवर जझिया कर लादला होता. धर्मपंडितांच्या आग्रहामुळे हिंदूंकडून जझिया वसूल करताना त्याच्या तोंडावर थुंकणे इ. प्रकारे त्याची मानहानी केली जाई. कारण इस्लामी धर्मशास्त्रानुसार हिंदूंना धिम्मी म्हणून देखील वागणूक देणे चुकीचे होते. सर्वांना मारून टाकणे अशक्य असल्यामुळेच त्यांच्या मानहानीचा पर्याय शोधण्यात आला.[२७] अशा प्रकारे मोठ्या प्रमाणात हिंदूंचा छळ करण्यासाठी जिझिया कराचा वापर भारतात केला गेला. क्रूर इस्लामी शासक औरंगजेब यात आघाडीवर होता.

संदर्भ

[संपादन]
  1. ^ a b c Abdel-Haleem, Muhammad (2010). Understanding the Qur'ān: Themes and Style. I. B. Tauris & Co Ltd. pp. 70, 79. ISBN 978-1845117894.
  2. ^ Abou Al-Fadl 2002.
  3. ^ Jizyah Archived 2015-09-08 at the Wayback Machine. The Oxford Dictionary of Islam (2010), Oxford University Press, Quote: Jizyah: Compensation. Poll tax levied on non-Muslims, such as Jews and Christians, as a form of tribute and in exchange for an exemption from military service, based on Quran 9:29.
  4. ^ Sabet, Amr (2006), The American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences 24:4, Oxford; pp. 99–100.
  5. ^ a b Bowering, Gerhard; Crone, Patricia; Mirza, Mahan; et al., eds. (2013). The Princeton encyclopedia of Islamic political thought. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. p. 283. ISBN 978-0691134840. Free adult males who were not afflicted by any physical or mental illness were required to pay the jizya. Women, children, handicapped, the mentally ill, the elderly, and slaves were exempt, as were all travelers and foreigners who did not settle in Muslim lands. [...] As Islam spread, previous structures of taxation were replaced by the Islamic system, but Muslim leaders often adopted practices of the previous regimes in the application and collection of taxes.
  6. ^ Bravmann 2009.
  7. ^ Mohammad, Gharipour (2014). Sacred Precincts: The Religious Architecture of Non-Muslim Communities Across the Islamic World. BRILL. p. XV. ISBN 978-9004280229. Sources indicate that the taxation system of early Islam was not necessarily an innovation of Muslims; it appears that 'Umar adopted the same tax system as was common at the time of the conquest of that territory. The land tax or kharaj was an adapted version of the tax system used in Sassanid Persia. In Syria, 'Umar followed the Byzantine system of collecting two taxes based on the account of lands and heads.
  8. ^ a b Shah 2008.
  9. ^ Walker Arnold, Thomas (1913). Preaching of Islam: A History of the Propagation of the Muslim Faith. Constable & Robinson Ltd. p. 59 ff. There is evidence to show that the Arab conquerors left unchanged the fiscal system that they found prevailing in the lands they conquered from the Byzantines, and that the explanation of jizyah as a capitation-tax is an invention of later jurists, ignorant of the true condition of affairs in the early days of Islam. (Caetani, vol. iv. p. 610 (§ 231); vol. v. p. 449.) H.Lammens: Ziād ibn Abīhi. (Rivista degli Studi Orientali, vol. iv. p. 215.) (online)
  10. ^ "Jizya Hindu". timesofindia. 26 April 2022 रोजी पाहिले.
  11. ^ . New York. Missing or empty |title= (सहाय्य)
  12. ^ Morony, Michael (2005). Iraq after the Muslim conquest. NJ, USA: Gorgias Press. pp. 109, 99–134. ISBN 978-1-59333-315-7.
  13. ^ Levy, Reuben (2002). The social structure of Islam. London New York: Routledge. pp. 310–1. ISBN 978-0-415-20910-6. "There is little doubt that in origin kharaj and jizya were interchangeable terms. In the Arabic papyri of the first century AH only jizya is mentioned, with the general meaning of tribute, while later the poll tax could be called kharaj ala ru'us ahl al-dhimma, i.e. a tax on the heads of protected peoples. The narrower meaning of the word is brought out by Abu Hanifa, "No individual can be liable at the same time to the zakat and to kharaj." [emphasis added]
  14. ^ Satish Chandra (1969), Jizyah and the State in India during the 17th Century, Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, Vol. 12, No. 3, pp. 322–40, quote="Although kharaj and jizyah were sometimes treated as synonyms, a number of fourteenth century theological tracts treat them as separate"
  15. ^ Peri, Oded (1990). "The Muslim waqf and the collection of jizya in late eighteenth-century Jerusalem". In Gilbar, Gad (ed.). Ottoman Palestine, 1800-1914 : Studies in economic and social history. Leiden: E.J. Brill. p. 287. ISBN 978-90-04-07785-0. the jizya was one of the main sources of revenue accruing to the Ottoman state treasury as a whole.
  16. ^ Abu Khalil, Shawkiy (2006). al-Islām fī Qafaṣ al-ʾIttihām الإسلام في قفص الإتهام (अरबी भाषेत). Dār al-Fikr. p. 149. ISBN 978-1575470047. Quote: و يعين مقدار الجزية إعتبارا لحالتهم الإقتصادية، فيؤخد من الموسرين أكثر و من الوسط أقل منه و من الفقراء شيء قليل جدا. و على الدين لا معاش لهم أو هم عالة على غيرهم يعفون من أداء الجزية. Translation: "The amount of jizya is determined in consideration of their economic status, so that more is taken from the prosperous, less from the middle [class], and a very small amount from the poor (fuqaraʾ). Those who do not have any means of livelihood or depend on support of others are exempted from paying the jizya." (online)
  17. ^ a b Ghazi, Kalin & Kamali 2013.
  18. ^ Abu Zahra, Muhammad. Zahrat al-Tafāsīr زهرة التفاسير (अरबी भाषेत). Cairo: Dār al-Fikr al-ʿArabī. pp. 3277–8. Quote: و ما يعطيه الذمي من المال يسمى جزية؛ [...] و لأنها جزاء لأن يدفع الإسلام عنهم، و يكفيهم مئونة القتال، و لأنها جزاء لما ينفق على فقراء أهل الذمة كما كان يفعل الإمام عمر، [...] و الإسلام قام بحق التساوي بين جميع من يكونون في طاعته، فإن الجزية التي تكون على الذمي تقابل ما يكون على المسلم من تكليفات مالية، فعليه زكاة المال، و عليه صدقات و نذور، و عليه كفارات، و غير ذلك، و لو أحصى كل ما يؤخد من المسلم لتبين أنه لا يقل عما يؤخد من جزية إن لم يزد. و إن الدولة كما ذكرنا تنفق على فقراء أهل الذمة، و لقد روى أن عمر - رضي الله تعالى عنه - وجد شيخا يهوديا يتكفف، فسأله: من أنت يا شيخ؟ قال رجل من أهل الذمة، فقال له: ما أنصفناك أكلنا شبيبتك و ضيعناك في شيخوختك، و أجرى عليه رزقا مستمرا من بيت المال، و قال لخادمه: ابحت عن هذا و ضربائه، و أَجْرِ عليهم رزقا من بيت المال. Translation: "And the money that the dhimmī gives is called jizya: [...] and [it is so named] because it is in return for the protection that they are guaranteed by the Islamic [community], and instead of rendering military service, and since it is [also] in return for what is spent on the poor amongst the dhimmī community (ahl al-dhimma) as ʾImām ʿUmar used to do. [...] and Islam gave the right of equality between all of those who are under its rule, indeed, the jizya that is demanded from the dhimmī corresponds to the financial obligations that are compulsory on the Muslim, so he is obliged [to purify] his wealth [through] zakat, and he is required to pay sadaqat and nudhur, and he is duty-bound to give kaffarat, as well as other things. And if all that is taken from the Muslim was calculated, it would become clear that it isn't less than what is taken by way of jizya, if it isn't more. And as we have mentioned earlier, the state spends on the poor amongst the dhimmī community, and it is narrated that ʿUmar - May God Almighty be pleased with him - found an elderly Jew begging, so he asked him: 'Who are you, old man (shaykh)?' He said, 'I am a man from the dhimma community.' So ʿUmar said to him: 'We have not done justice to you in taking from you when you were young and forsaking you in your old age', so ʿUmar gave him a regular pension from the public treasury (Bayt al-Māl), and he then said to his servant: "Search for him and those like him, and give them out from the public treasury.""
  19. ^ M. Zawati, Hilmi (2002). Is Jihād a Just War?: War, Peace, and Human Rights Under Islamic and Public International Law (Studies in religion & society). Edwin Mellen Press. pp. 63–4. ISBN 978-0773473041.
  20. ^ a b Wael, B. Hallaq (2009). Sharī'a: Theory, Practice and Transformations. Cambridge University Press. pp. 332–3. ISBN 978-0-521-86147-2.
  21. ^ a b Alshech, Eli (2003). "Islamic Law, Practice, and Legal Doctrine: Exempting the Poor from the Jizya under the Ayyubids (1171-1250)". Islamic Law and Society. 10 (3): 348–375. doi:10.1163/156851903770227584. ...jurists divided the dhimma community into two major groups. The first group consists of all adult, free, sane males among the dhimma community, while the second includes all other dhimmas (i.e., women, slaves, minors, and the insane). Jurists generally agree that members of the second group are to be granted a "blanket" exemption from jizya payment.
  22. ^ a b c Ellethy 2014.
  23. ^ Rispler-Chaim, Vardit (2007). Disability in Islamic law. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Springer. p. 44. ISBN 978-1402050527. The Hanbali position is that boys, women, the mentally insane, the zamin, and the blind are exempt from paying jizya. This view is supposedly shared by the Hanafis, Shafi'is, and Malikis.
  24. ^ Majid Khadduri, War and Peace in the Law of Islam, pp. 192-3.
  25. ^ Walker Arnold, Thomas (1913). Preaching of Islam: A History of the Propagation of the Muslim Faith. Constable & Robinson Ltd. pp. 61–2. ... the jizyah was levied on the able-bodied males, in lieu of the military service they would have been called upon to perform had they been Musalmans; and it is very noticeable that when any Christian people served in the Muslim army, they were exempted from the payment of this tax. Such was the case with the tribe of al-Jurājima, a Christian tribe in the neighborhood of Antioch who made peace with the Muslims, promising to be their allies and fight on their side in battle, on condition that they should not be called upon to pay jizyah and should receive their proper share of the booty. (online)
  26. ^ Abdel-Haleem 2012.
  27. ^ जझिया कर