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हिजरत

विकिपीडिया, मुक्‍त ज्ञानकोशातून

हिजरत किंवा हिज्र ( अरबी: الهجرة ) हे इस्लामी संदेष्टा मोहम्मद आणि त्यांच्या अनुयायांचा मक्का ते मदिना असा प्रवास होता.[१][२] हिजरत या शब्दाचा अर्थ प्रवास करणे असा होतो. ज्या वर्षी हिजरत करण्यात आले ते चंद्र हिजरी [a] आणि सौर हिजरी कॅलेंडरचे युग म्हणून ओळखले जाते; त्याची तारीख ज्युलियन कॅलेंडरमध्ये 16 जुलै 622 इतकी आहे.[३][४][b] हिजरत या अरबी शब्दाचा अर्थ प्रामुख्याने "नातेवाईक किंवा सहवासाचे संबंध तोडणे" असा होतो. [७] [८] मध्ययुगीन लॅटिनमध्ये हेगिरा म्हणूनही लिप्यंतरित केले गेले आहे, हा शब्द अजूनही इंग्रजीमध्ये अधूनमधून वापरला जातो.

हे देखील पहा[संपादन]

संदर्भ[संपादन]

  1. ^ Shaikh, Fazlur Rehman (2001). Chronology of Prophetic Events. London: Ta-Ha Publishers Ltd. pp. 51–52.
  2. ^ Marom, Roy (Fall 2017). "Approaches to the Research of Early Islam: The Hijrah in Western Historiography". Jamma'a. 23: vii.
  3. ^ Burnaby, Sherrard Beaumont (1901). Elements of the Jewish and Muhammadan calendars. pp. 373–5, 382–4.
  4. ^ Dershowitz, Nachum; Reingold, Edward (2018). "Table 1.2 Epochs for various calendars". Calendrical Calculations (Third ed.). O'Reilly. p. 17. ISBN 9781108546935. OCLC 1137352777.
  5. ^ al-Biruni, The chronology of ancient nations, tr. C. Edward Sachau (1000/1879) 327.
  6. ^ "NASA phases of the moon 601–700". Archived from the original on 8 October 2010.
  7. ^ (Schacht et al. 1998)
  8. ^ (Holt et al. 1978)

संदर्भग्रंथ[संपादन]

नोंद[संपादन]

  1. ^ commonly known in the West as 'the' Islamic calendar, though both calendars are used by Muslims.
  2. ^ 1 Muharram of the new fixed calendar corresponded to Friday, 16 July 622 CE, the equivalent civil tabular date (same daylight period) in the Julian calendar. The Islamic day began at the preceding sunset on the evening of 15 July. This Julian date (16 July) was determined by medieval Muslim astronomers by projecting back in time their own tabular Islamic calendar, which had alternating 30- and 29-day months in each lunar year plus eleven leap days every 30 years. For example, al-Biruni mentioned this Julian date in the year 1000 CE.[५] Although not used by either medieval Muslim astronomers or modern scholars to determine the Islamic epoch, the thin crescent moon would have also first become visible (assuming clouds did not obscure it) shortly after the preceding sunset on the evening of 15 July, 1.5 days after the associated dark moon (astronomical new moon) on the morning of 14 July.[६]