चित्रपट उद्योग

विकिपीडिया, मुक्‍त ज्ञानकोशातून
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ह्या लेखाचा/विभागाचा इंग्रजी किंवा अमराठी भाषेतून मराठी भाषेत भाषांतर करावयाचे बाकी आहे. अनुवाद करण्यास आपलाही सहयोग हवा आहे. ऑनलाईन शब्दकोश आणि इतर सहाय्या करिता भाषांतर प्रकल्पास भेट द्या.


Cinema admissions in 1995

चित्रपट उद्योग किंवा मराठीत सहसा चित्रपट सृष्टी असे संबोधतात.चित्रपट उद्योगात प्रामुख्याने चित्रपट निर्मितीतील तांत्रिक आणि व्यावसायिक संस्थाचा समावेश होतो.जसे, निर्मिती संस्था, चित्रपट स्टुडिओ, छायाचित्रीकरण, चित्रपट निर्माण, पटकथालेखन, पूर्वनिर्मिती, पोस्ट प्रॉडक्शन, चित्रपट महोत्सव, वितरण; आणि कलाकार, film directors and other film personnel.

Though the expense involved in making movies almost immediately led film production to concentrate under the auspices of standing production companies, advances in affordable film making equipment, and expansion of opportunities to acquire investment capital from outside the film industry itself, have allowed independent film production to evolve.

आधुनिक चित्रपट उद्योग[संपादन]

The major business centers of film making are in the United States, India, Hong Kong and Nigeria.

Distinct from the centers are the locations where movies are filmed. Because of labor and infrastructure costs, many films are produced in countries other than the one in which the company which pays for the film is located. For example, many U.S. movies are filmed in Canada, the United Kingdom, Australia, न्यू झीलँड or in Eastern European countries.

अमेरीकेची संयुक्त संस्थाने[संपादन]

साचा:Seealso The United States has the oldest film industry (and largest in terms of revenue), and Los Angeles, California is the primary nexus of the U.S. film industry. However, four of the major film studios are owned by East Coast companies. Only The Walt Disney Company and owner of Walt Disney Pictures, Touchstone Pictures, Hollywood Pictures, Miramax Films, and the Pixar Animation Studios is actually headquartered in Southern California. The same can be said for Sony Pictures which is headquartered in Culver City, California, although the corporate side of Sony Pictures is headquartered in Tokyo, Japan.

भारत[संपादन]

भारतीय चलचित्रपट ह्यात प्रामुख्याने भारतभर पसरलेल्या विविध भाषातील चित्रपटांचा समावेश होतो.भारतीय चित्रपटांत आंध्र प्रदेश,महाराष्ट्र,तमिळनाडू,कर्नाटक,केरळ,पंजाब आणि पश्चिम बंगाल ह्या राज्यातील चित्रपट संस्कृतीचा आंतर्भाव होतो.मुंबई हे भारतातील सर्वात मोठे चित्रपट निर्मिती केंद्र म्हणुन विकसीत होत आहे,ते मुख्यत्वे करून हिंदी भाषामराठी भाषेतील चित्रपटांच्या निर्मितीसाठी प्रसिद्ध आहे.भारतीय चित्रपटांची मागणी दक्षिण आणि दक्षिण पूर्व आशियातील देशांत अधिक प्रमाणात आहे.एक प्रसिद्ध माध्यम असल्याकारणाने भारतात सर्वसाधारणपणे सर्व भाषातील मिळून १००० हून अधिक चित्रपटांची निर्मिती होत असते.परदेशात स्थायिक झालेल्या भारतीय वंशाच्या लोकांमध्ये विशेषतः इंग्लंड आणि अमेरीकेतील प्रेक्षकांमध्ये हिंदी भाषा,तमिळ,तेलुगू,मल्याळम आणि बंगाली भाषेतील चित्रपटांची रेलचेल असते.

हाँगकाँग[संपादन]

Zhuangzi Tests His Wife (1913) is credited as the first Hong Kong feature film

साचा:Seealso

Hong Kong is a filmmaking hub for the Chinese-speaking world (including the worldwide diaspora) and East Asia in general. For decades it was the third largest motion picture industry in the world (after Indian and Hollywood) and the second largest exporter of films.[संदर्भ द्या] Despite an industry crisis starting in the mid-1990s and Hong Kong's return to Chinese sovereignty in July 1997, Hong Kong film has retained much of its distinctive identity and continues to play a prominent part on the world cinema stage.

Unlike many film industries, Hong Kong has enjoyed little to no direct government support, through either subsidies or import quotas. It has always been a thoroughly commercial cinema, concentrating on crowd-pleasing genres, like comedy and action, and heavily reliant on formulas, sequels and remakes. Typically of commercial cinemas, its heart is a highly developed star system, which in this case also features substantial overlap with the pop music industry.

नायजेरीया[संपादन]

साचा:Seealso

Nigeria was ushered into modern film making by a film known as Living in Bondage, which featured Kenneth Okonwo, Kanayo. O. Kanayo, Bob Manuel Udokwu, Francis Agu, Ngozi Nwosu, Nnena Nwabueze, etc. This movie, which hit the market in 1992, marked a turning point in the Nigerian movie industry and heralded the trend in modern-day movie making in Nigeria.

The movie capital of the country was in Lagos. However, over the years, there has been a shift from Lagos to Enugu, in the eastern part of the country. This shift is said to be championed by Pete Edochie, a veteran in the communications industry who turned an actor and has become one of the most successful in Nigeria.

इतिहास[संपादन]

Still image from The Story of the Kelly Gang

The first feature film ever made was The Story of the Kelly Gang, an Australian film based on the infamous Ned Kelly. In 1906 Dan Barry and Charles Tait of Melbourne produced and directed The Story of the Kelly Gang, a silent film that ran continuously for a breathtaking 80 minutes. It was not until 1911 that countries other than Australia began to make feature films. By this time Australia had made 16 full-length feature films.[संदर्भ द्या]

In the early 1910s, the film industry had fully emerged with D.W. Griffith's The Birth of a Nation. Also in the early 1900s, motion picture production companies from New York and New Jersey started moving to California because of the good weather and longer days. Although electric lights existed at that time, none were powerful enough to adequately expose film; the best source of illumination for movie production was natural sunlight. Besides the moderate, dry climate, they were also drawn to the state because of its open spaces and wide variety of natural scenery.

Another reason was the distance of Southern California from New Jersey, which made it more difficult for Thomas Edison to enforce his motion picture patents. At the time, Edison owned almost all the patents relevant to motion picture production and, in the East, movie producers acting independently of Edison's Motion Picture Patents Company were often sued or enjoined by Edison and his agents. Thus, movie makers working on the West Coast could work independently of Edison's control. If he sent agents to California, word would usually reach Los Angeles before the agents did and the movie makers could escape to nearby Mexico.[संदर्भ द्या]

हॉलीवूड[संपादन]

The first movie studio in the Hollywood area, Nestor Studios, was founded in 1911 by Al Christie for David Horsley in an old building on the northwest corner of Sunset Boulevard and Gower Street. In the same year, another fifteen Independents settled in Hollywood. Hollywood came to be so strongly associated with the film industry that the word "Hollywood" came to be used colloquially to refer to the entire industry.

In 1913, Cecil B. DeMille, in association with Jesse Lasky, leased a barn with studio facilities on the southeast corner of Selma and Vine Streets from the Burns and Revier Studio and Laboratory, which had been established there. DeMille then began production of The Squaw Man (1914). It became known as the Lasky-DeMille Barn and is currently the location of the Hollywood Heritage Museum.

The Charlie Chaplin Studios, on the northeast corner of La Brea and De Longpre Avenues just south of Sunset Boulevard, was built in 1917. It has had many owners after 1953, including Kling Studios, which housed production for the Superman TV series with George Reeves; Red Skelton, who used the sound stages for his CBS TV variety show; and CBS, who filmed the TV series Perry Mason with Raymond Burr there. It has also been owned by Herb Alpert's A&M Records and Tijuana Brass Enterprises. It is currently The Jim Henson Company, home of the Muppets. In 1969, The Los Angeles Cultural Heritage Board named the studio a historical cultural monument.

The famous Hollywood Sign originally read "Hollywoodland." It was erected in 1923 to advertise a new housing development in the hills above Hollywood. For several years the sign was left to deteriorate. In 1949, the Hollywood Chamber of Commerce stepped in and offered to remove the last four letters and repair the rest.

The sign, located at the top of Mount Lee, is now a registered trademark and cannot be used without the permission of the Hollywood Chamber of Commerce, which also manages the venerable Walk of Fame.

The Hollywood Sign as it appears today.

The first Academy Awards presentation ceremony took place on May 16, 1929 during a banquet held in the Blossom Room of the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel on Hollywood Boulevard. Tickets were USD $10.00 and there were 250 people in attendance.

From about 1930, five major Hollywood movie studios from all over the Los Angeles area, Paramount, RKO, 20th Century Fox, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and Warner Bros., owned large, grand theaters throughout the country for the exhibition of their movies. The period between the years 1927 (the effective end of the silent era) to 1948 is considered the age of the "Hollywood studio system", or, in a more common term, the Golden Age of Hollywood. In a landmark 1948 court decision, the Supreme Court ruled that movie studios could not own theaters and play only the movies of their studio and movie stars, thus an era of Hollywood history had unofficially ended. By the mid-1950s, when television proved a profitable enterprise that was here to stay, movie studios started also being used for the production of programming in that medium, which is still the norm today.

अधिक संदर्भदूवे[संपादन]

  • Allen J. Scott (2005) On Hollywood: The Place The Industry, Princeton University Press

हेसुद्धा पाहा[संपादन]

बाह्य दुवे[संपादन]

साचा:Worldcinema

Film industry