भूमिती विषयाशी संबंधीत हा लेख अपूर्ण आहे आणि पूर्ण करण्यास आपण हातभार लावू शकता. हा लेख संपादित करण्यासाठी येथे टिचकी द्या.
भूमिती (ग्रीक: γεωμετρία ; इंग्रजी: Geometry, जॉमेट्री / जिऑमेट्री ; अर्थ: भू -जमीन, मिती -मापन ;) ही आकृत्यांचे आकार, आकारमान व अवकाशाचे गुणधर्म अभ्यासणारी गणिताची एक शाखा आहे. ज्ञात इतिहासानुसार अभिजात गणिताच्या शाखांमधील सर्वाधिक प्राचीन शाखांमध्ये भूमितीची गणना होते. आरंभिक कालखंडात लांबी, क्षेत्रफळ व घनफळ इत्यादी गुणधर्मांच्या व्यावहारिक अभ्यासापर्यंत सीमित असणाऱ्या भूमितीला इ.स.पू.च्या ३ ऱ्या शतकात युक्लिड या ग्रीक तत्त्वज्ञाने केलेल्या विषयाच्या संगतवार मांडणीमुळे सैद्धान्तिक बैठक मिळाली. आर्किमिडीज या ग्रीक पदार्थवैज्ञानिकाने याने क्षेत्रफळे आणि आकारमान मोजण्यासाठी आधुनिक पूर्णांकी गणन पद्धतीचे तंत्र कुशलतेने विकसित केले . The field of astronomy, especially as it relates to mapping the positions of stars and planets on the celestial sphere and describing the relationship between movements of celestial bodies, served as an important source of geometric problems during the next one and a half millennia. In the classical world, both geometry and astronomy were considered to be part of the Quadrivium, a subset of the seven liberal arts considered essential for a free citizen to master.
The introduction of coordinates by René Descartes and the concurrent developments of algebra marked a new stage for geometry, since geometric figures such as plane curves could now be represented analytically in the form of functions and equations. This played a key role in the emergence of infinitesimal calculus in the 17th century. Furthermore, the theory of perspective showed that there is more to geometry than just the metric properties of figures: perspective is the origin of projective geometry. The subject of geometry was further enriched by the study of the intrinsic structure of geometric objects that originated with Euler and Gauss and led to the creation of topology and differential geometry.
In Euclid's time, there was no clear distinction between physical and geometrical space. Since the 19th-century discovery of non-Euclidean geometry, the concept of space has undergone a radical transformation and raised the question of which geometrical space best fits physical space. With the rise of formal mathematics in the 20th century, 'space' (whether 'point', 'line', or 'plane') lost its intuitive contents, so today we have to distinguish between physical space, geometrical spaces (in which 'space', 'point' etc. still have their intuitive meaning) and abstract spaces. Contemporary geometry considers manifolds, spaces that are considerably more abstract than the familiar Euclidean space, which they only approximately resemble at small scales. These spaces may be endowed with additional structure which allow one to speak about length. Modern geometry has many ties to physics as is exemplified by the links between pseudo-Riemannian geometry and general relativity. One of the youngest physical theories, string theory, is also very geometric in flavour.
While the visual nature of geometry makes it initially more accessible than other mathematical areas such as algebra or number theory, geometric language is also used in contexts far removed from its traditional, Euclidean provenance (for example, in fractal geometry and algebraic geometry).
- ड्रेक्सेल विद्यापीठ - मॅथ फोरम 'मॅथ लायब्ररी' - भूमिती : भूमितीविषयी ऑनलाइन संसाधने, माहिती व बाह्य दुवे (इंग्लिश मजकूर)