साचा:बौद्ध परंपरा कालानुक्रम/doc

विकिपीडिया, मुक्‍त ज्ञानकोशातून

वापर[संपादन]

या साच्याचा वापर आपण बौद्ध धर्म या लेखात पाहू शकाल.

About[संपादन]

Template:Buddhist traditions timeline represents the origination and demise of Buddhism in India (ca. 450 BCE[१] to ca. 1200 CE[२]) along with the concurrent arising and development of the three major still extant Buddhist traditions: Theravada, Mahayana and Vajrayana.

Usage[संपादन]

This template can be invoked as follows:

  • {{Buddhist schools timeline}}transcludes the template as shown here (without endnotes).
  • {{Buddhist schools timeline|notes=1}}transcludes the template with endnote references (e.g., [1] and [2]) and associated notes (see below).

Color scheme[संपादन]

The various colors used in this diagram are meant to suggest the monastic robes of the associated tradition:

saffron
("gold")
थेरवाद
brown
("peru")
महायान
muted red
("indianred")
वज्रयान/तिबेटी/शिंगोन

"Greco-Buddhism", "Silk Road Buddhism" and "Nara" represent regions and time periods when both Early Buddhist schools and Mahayana traditions co-existed and thus the associated color is a blend of the Early Buddhist schools and Mahayana colors.

Diagrammatic limitations[संपादन]

The diagram's bars are not meant to convey the population sizes of the associated tradition's adherents.

Use of the "notes" option[संपादन]

If the "notes" option is used, then the endnote references will be included in the diagram and associated notes will be automatically placed in the article's associated "Notes" section. In such a case, the notes' source material (identified below) should also be included in the article's "Sources" or "References" section.

Notes[संपादन]

Associated with the diagram's endnote references (if there are no preceding notes then: [1], [2]), this diagram's notes are:

  1. ^ Cousins, L.S. (1996); Buswell (2003), Vol. I, p. 82; and, Keown & Prebish (2004), p. 107. See also, Gombrich (1988/2002), p. 32: “…[T]he best we can say is that [the Buddha] was probably Enlightened between 550 and 450, more likely later rather than earlier."
  2. ^ Williams (2000, pp. 6-7) writes: "As a matter of fact Buddhism in mainland India itself had all but ceased to exist by the thirteenth century CE, although by that time it had spread to Tibet, China, Japan, and Southeast Asia." Embree et al. (1958/1988), "Chronology," p. xxix: "c. 1000-1200: Buddhism disappears as [an] organized religious force in India." See also, Robinson & Johnson (1970/1982), pp. 100-1, 108 Fig. 1; and, Harvey (1990/2007), pp. 139-40.

These notes will be automatically generated in an article (that is, these notes are embedded in this diagram) when this diagram is transcluded if the <references /> or {{reflist}} tags are used.

Sources[संपादन]

The notes are based on the following sources/references:

  • Buswell, Jr., Robert E. (ed.) (2003). Encyclopedia of Buddhism (MacMillan). साचा:ISBN.
  • Cousins, L.S. (1996). "The Dating of the Historical Buddha: A Review Article" in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, Series 3, 6.1 (1996): 57-63. Retrieved 29 Nov 2008 from "Indology" at http://indology.info/papers/cousins/.
  • Embree, Ainslie T. (ed.), Stephen N. Hay (ed.), Wm. Theodore de Bary (ed.), A.L. Bashram, R.N. Dandekar, Peter Hardy, J.B. Harrison, V. Raghavan, Royal Weiler, and Andrew Yarrow (1958; 2nd ed. 1988). Sources of Indian Tradition: From the Beginning to 1800 (vol. 1). NY: Columbia U. Press. साचा:ISBN.
  • Gombrich, Richard F. (1988; 6th reprint, 2002). Theravāda Buddhism: A Social History from Ancient Benares to Modern Colombo (London: Routledge). साचा:ISBN.
  • Harvey, Peter (1990; 15th printing, 2007). An Introduction to Buddhism: Teachings, History and Practices (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). साचा:ISBN.
  • Keown, Damien and Charles S Prebish (eds.) (2004). Encyclopedia of Buddhism (London: Routledge). साचा:ISBN.
  • Robinson, Richard H. and Willard L. Johnson (1970; 3rd ed., 1982). The Buddhist Religion: A Historical Introduction (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing). साचा:ISBN.
  • Williams, Paul with Anthony Tribe (2000). Buddhist Thought (London: Routledge). साचा:ISBN. Retrieved 29 Nov 2008 from "Google Books" at http://books.google.com/books?id=v0Rpvycf1t0C.

If the notes are transcluded with this diagram, then it is recommended that these references be copy-and-pasted into the transcluding article's sources/bibliography section.

See also[संपादन]

Notes[संपादन]

  1. Cousins, L.S. (1996); Buswell (2003), Vol. I, p. 82; and, Keown & Prebish (2004), p. 107. See also, Gombrich (1988/2002), p. 32: “…[T]he best we can say is that [the Buddha] was probably Enlightened between 550 and 450, more likely later rather than earlier."
  2. Williams (2000, pp. 6-7) writes: "As a matter of fact Buddhism in mainland India itself had all but ceased to exist by the thirteenth century CE, although by that time it had spread to Tibet, China, Japan, and Southeast Asia." See also, Robinson & Johnson (1970/1982), pp. 100-1, 108 Fig. 1; and, Harvey (1990/2007), pp. 139-40.

Sources[संपादन]

  • Buswell, Jr., Robert E. (ed.) (2003). Encyclopedia of Buddhism (MacMillan). साचा:ISBN.
  • Cousins, L.S. (1996). "The Dating of the Historical Buddha: A Review Article" in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, Series 3, 6.1 (1996): 57-63. Retrieved 29 Nov 2008 from "Indology" at http://indology.info/papers/cousins/.
  • Embree, Ainslie T. (ed.), Stephen N. Hay (ed.), Wm. Theodore de Bary (ed.), A.L. Bashram, R.N. Dandekar, Peter Hardy, J.B. Harrison, V. Raghavan, Royal Weiler, and Andrew Yarrow (1958; 2nd ed. 1988). Sources of Indian Tradition: From the Beginning to 1800 (vol. 1). NY: Columbia U. Press. साचा:ISBN.
  • Gombrich, Richard F. (1988; 6th reprint, 2002). Theravāda Buddhism: A Social History from Ancient Benares to Modern Colombo (London: Routledge). साचा:ISBN.
  • Harvey, Peter (1990; 15th printing, 2007). An Introduction to Buddhism: Teachings, History and Practices (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). साचा:ISBN.
  • Keown, Damien and Charles S Prebish (eds.) (2004). Encyclopedia of Buddhism (London: Routledge). साचा:ISBN.
  • Robinson, Richard H. and Willard L. Johnson (1970; 3rd ed., 1982). The Buddhist Religion: A Historical Introduction (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing). साचा:ISBN.
  • Williams, Paul with Anthony Tribe (2000). Buddhist Thought (London: Routledge). साचा:ISBN. Retrieved 29 Nov 2008 from "Google Books" at http://books.google.com/books?id=v0Rpvycf1t0C.