|ह्या लेखातील / विभागातील सध्याचा मजकूर इतर भाषा ते मराठी विकिपीडिया:भाषांतर प्रकल्प/मशीन ट्रान्सलेशन वापरून, [] भाषेतून मराठी भाषेत अंशत: अनुवादित केला गेला आहे / अथवा तसा कयास आहे. (ही सूचना/खूणपताका/टॅग लावताना, सहसा, सदर कयासासंबंधित मजकुरातील मराठी व्याकरणाच्या तफावतीवरून केले जातात). मशीन ट्रान्सलेशनने मिळालेल्या अनुवादातील केवळ पूर्णतः व्यवस्थित अनुवादित वाक्ये तेवढीच घेण्याचा प्रयत्न केला आहे (करावा). आपल्याला आढळलेल्या त्रुटी येथे नोंदवाव्यात. लेखाच्या इतिहासातील फरक अभ्यासून भाषांतरास उपयोगी आणि अद्ययावत करण्यास मदत हवी आहे. (पहा: मशीन ट्रान्सलेशन/नीती काय आहे?)
हेसुद्धा करा : विकिकरण, शुद्धलेखन सुधारणा, शब्द तपास : ऑनलाईन शब्दकोश, अन्य साहाय्य: भाषांतर प्रकल्प.
वाढदिवस हा वापरात असणाऱ्या दिनदर्शिकांनुसार (जिवंत) व्यक्तीच्या जन्मापासून पूर्ण वर्षांनी येणाऱ्या विशिष्ट तारखेला येतो.
सांस्कृतिक संकेत आणि कायदेविषयक नियम[संपादन]
In most legal systems, one becomes a legal adult on a particular birthday (often 18th or 21st), and at different ages gains different rights and responsibilities – voting, certain drug use (for example, alcohol, purchasing tobacco), eligibility for military conscription or voluntary enlistment, purchasing lottery tickets, vehicle driving licenses, etc.[ संदर्भ हवा ]
Many cultures have one or more coming of age birthdays:
- Jewish boys have a bar mitzvah on or around their 13th birthday. Jewish girls have a bat mitzvah on or around their 12th birthday, or sometimes on or around their 13th birthday in Reform and Conservative Judaism.
- In some Christian traditions;Anglican view Confirmation is the ritual by which a young person receives a Sacrament thought to bestow certain gifts of the Holy Spirit. The timing of the reception of this Sacrament serves, on a sociological level, as a sort of "rite of passage" into adulthood. Catholic views this ritual as taking place at the "age of discretion" where a person has an understanding of right and wrong . It is not seen so much as a "rite of passage" as a fulfillment of baptism, the first sacrament, and a personal declaration and election to accept the Faith.
- In Hispanic countries the quinceañera celebration traditionally marks a girl's 15th birthday.[ संदर्भ हवा ]
- Some girls and a few boys in the United States have "sweet sixteen" birthday parties.[ संदर्भ हवा ]
- In India, the 12th or 13th birthday is replaced with a grand "thread ceremony." The child takes a blessed thread and wears it, symbolizing his coming of age. This ceremony is more common amongst boys in the Hindu brambhins culture.[ संदर्भ हवा ]. In Maharashtra, Thread Ceremony is performed in the year which comes after completion of age 7th. Apart from Brahmins, Kshatriyas and Vaishyas do have Thread Ceremony.
- In the Philippines , girls on their 18th birthday or guys on their 21st birthday celebrate a debut.
The birthdays of historically significant people, like national heroes or founders, are often commemorated by an official holiday. Some saints are remembered by a liturgical feast (sometimes on a presumed birthday). By analogy, the Latin term Dies natalis is applied to the anniversary of an institution (such as a university).
A person's Golden or Grand Birthday, more commonly referred to as their "Lucky Birthday", "Champagne Birthday" or "Star Birthday", occurs when they turn the age of their birth day (e.g., when someone born on the 25th of the month turns 25).
Name days[मराठी शब्द सुचवा] दिवस[संपादन]
In some Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox countries such as फ्रांस, Poland, Russia, Bulgaria, Hungary, or Greece, it is common to have a 'name day'/'Saint's day'. This is celebrated in much the same way as a birthday, but is held on the official day of a saint with the same Christian name as the birthday person; the difference being that one may look up a person's name day in a calendar, or easily remember common name days (for example, John or Mary); however in pious traditions, the two were often made to concur by giving a newborn the name of a saint celebrated on its birthday, or even the name of a feast, for example, Noel or Pascal (French for Christmas and "of Easter").
लीपवर्षातील २९ फेब्रुवारीला जन्मलेल्या काही व्यक्ती लीपवर्ष नसलेल्या वर्षात २८ फेब्रुवारी किंवा १ मार्चला आपला वाढदिवस साजरा करतात. शाळांच्या सुट्ट्यांमध्ये वाढदिवस असलेल्या मुलांसाठी अनेकदा शाळांमधून अर्धा वाढदिवसही साजरा केला जातो. मोरारजी देसाई यांचा वाढदिवस २९ फेब्रुवारीला येई. ते चार वर्षांतून एकदा वाढदिवस साजरा करीत.
Some notables, particularly monarchs, have an official birthday on a fixed day of the year, which may not necessarily match their actual birthday, but on which celebrations are held. Examples are:
- Jesus of Nazareth's traditional birthday is celebrated as Christmas Day around the world: 25 December. As some Eastern churches use the Julian calendar, 25 December falls on 7 January in the Gregorian calendar every year until 2100.
- The King's or Queen's Official Birthday in Australia, Fiji, न्यू झीलँड, and the United Kingdom; in Canada this day is known as Victoria Day.
- The Grand Duke's Official Birthday in Luxembourg: 23 June.
- Koningsdag or Koninginnedag in the Kingdom of the Netherlands is fixed on 30 April (Queen's Day; celebration of the reigning Queen's accession). Queen Beatrix fixed it at the birthday of her mother, the previous Queen, to avoid the winter weather associated with her own birthday in January.
While it is uncommon to have an official holiday for a republican head of state's birthday, this can become a permanent posthumous honour, for example George Washington's and Abraham Lincoln's birthdays are celebrated together as Presidents' Day.
|ह्या लेखाचा/विभागाचा इंग्रजी किंवा अमराठी भाषेतून मराठी भाषेत भाषांतर करावयाचे बाकी आहे. अनुवाद करण्यास आपलाही सहयोग हवा आहे. ऑनलाईन शब्दकोश आणि इतर सहाय्या करिता भाषांतर प्रकल्पास भेट द्या.
The birthday cake is traditionally highly decorated, and typically covered with lit candles when presented, the number of candles signifying the age of the celebrant. The person whose birthday it is may make a silent wish and then blow out the candles. After that, the person can open their presents. It is also common for the person celebrating their birthday to cut the initial piece of the cake as a newlywed couple might with a wedding cake.
Each item was associated with a prediction. For example, a person finding a gold coin in a birthday cake would supposedly become wealthy; a person discovering a thimble would never marry.
Sometimes special candles are substituted for the many individual candles in the shape of a numeral. For example, on the first birthday, there may be one candle on the cake in the shape of the numeral one, and on the tenth birthday there may be two candles on the cake, one in the shape of the numeral one followed by the other in the shape of the number zero.
In addition to parties, it is common for people to receive gifts on their birthdays or surprise parties. The popular gifts include toys, books, jewellery, clothes, flowers, technical devices, etc. However, sometimes it is expected of the person celebrating their birthday to treat their party guests instead; this varies depending on the local culture and may involve party gifts or other gestures, for example inviting to the restaurant or bar (some of them offer special birthday programs), arranging party at home, or at work. The origin of the birthday gift giving originates from the gift giving celebration of Christmas.[ संदर्भ हवा ]
In most English-speaking countries it is traditional to sing the song Happy Birthday to You to the honored person celebrating a birthday. Happy Birthday songs are common worldwide. Similar songs exist in other languages such as "Zhu ni sheng ri kuai le" in Mandarin Chinese, "Lang zal hij/zij leven" in Dutch, "Õnne soovime Sul" in Estonian, "Zum Geburtstag Viel Glück" in German, "Nα ζήσεις και χρόνια πολλά " in Greek, "Hayom Yom HUledet" in Hebrew, "Que los cumplas feliz" or "Feliz cumpleaños a ti" in Spanish, "Parabéns a você" in Portuguese, "Maligayang Bati" in Filipino, "Sto lat" in Polish, "Lá Breithe Shona Duit" in Irish, "multi ani traiasca" in Romanian, "Ja må du leva" or "Med en enkel tulipan" in Swedish, "Joyeux Anniversaire" or "Bonne Fête" in French, "Tanti Auguri a te" in Italian and "Iyi ki dogdun, Mutlu Yillar Sana" in Turkish.[ संदर्भ हवा ]This song is a common greeting used on birthdays, along with greeting cards and verbal greetings with messages such as "I wish you a Happy Birthday" or "Happy Birthday."
वाढदिवस साजरा करण्याची पद्धत[संपादन]
भारतीय पारंपरिक प्रथा[संपादन]
- वाढदिवसाच्या दिवशी अभ्यंगस्नान करून नवीन कपडे घालण्याची प्रथा आहे.
- ज्याचा वाढदिवस असेल, तो आंघोळीनंतर आई-वडील, तसेच वडीलधाऱ्या व्यक्तींना नमस्कार करतो.
- ज्याचा वाढदिवस असेल, त्याचे औक्षण करतात. (त्याला तुपाच्या दिव्याने ओवाळतात.)
- औक्षण झाल्यावर वाढदिवस असलेल्याच्या डोक्यावर अक्षता टाकतात.
- वाढदिवस असलेल्याला खाण्यास गोड पदार्थ देतात.
- वाढदिवस असलेल्यांसाठी शुभेच्छा देतात.
- ज्याचा वाढदिवस असेल त्याला एखादी भेटवस्तू आणि वाढदिवसाच्या शुभेच्छा देतात.
Timezones and birthdays[संपादन]
A person's birthday is usually recorded according to the time zone of the place of birth. Thus people born in Samoa at 11:30 pm will record their birthdate as one day before Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) and those born in the Line Islands will record their birthdate one day after UTC. They will apparently be born two days apart, while some of the apparently older ones may be younger in hours. Those who live in different time zones from their birth often exclusively celebrate their birthdays at the local time zone. In addition, the intervention of Daylight Saving Time can result in a case where a baby born second being recorded as having been born up to an hour before their predecessor.
In Judaism, the perspective on birthday celebrations is disputed by various rabbis. In the Hebrew Bible, the one single mention of a celebration being held in commemoration of someone's day of birth is for the Egyptian Pharaoh, while Leviticus 18:1-3 states "And the LORD spoke to Moses, saying, "Speak to the people of Israel and say to them, I am the LORD your God. You shall not do as they do in the land of Egypt, where you lived".
The bar mitzvah of 13-year-old Jewish boys, or bat mitzvah for 12-year-old Jewish girls, is perhaps the only Jewish celebration undertaken in what is often perceived to be in coalition with a birthday. However, the essence of a bar/bat mitzvah celebration is entirely religious in origin (i.e. the attainment of religious maturity according to Jewish law) and not secular, despite modern celebrations where the secular "birthday" element often overshadows the essence of it as a religious rite. With or without the "birthday" celebration, the child nevertheless becomes a bar or bat mitzvah, and the celebration can be on that day or any date after it.
Since the foundation of Christianity historically lies in Judaism, if there is a stance against the celebration of birthdays, it often mirrors the Jewish religious arguments. Few branches of Christianity, however, actually hold any official stance in regards to birthdays, be it in favour or against. Orthodox Christianity prefers the celebration of name days only, though it is not because of any active theologically-based prohibition or discouragement. Some Christian communities, especially in the Hispanosphere, celebrate both naming days and birthdays. Jehovah's Witnesses and some Sacred Name groups, among others, do not celebrate birthdays at all. They point to, for example, the birthday celebrations in the Bible for Pharaoh and for Herod, the latter being the occasion for the beheading of John the Baptist. Also, the origins, magic, and superstitions surrounding the pagan celebration of birthdays are also a some other reasons for some Christian groups rejecting birthday celebrations.
In the branches of Christianity where there is active discouragement or prohibition against birthdays, by default, this also affects their stance in regards to Christmas. After all, in its religiously presented form, Christmas is the commemoration of the birth of Jesus of Nazareth, that is, a birthday celebration for Jesus. Hence, Jehovah's Witnesses do not espouse the celebration of Christmas either, although additional theological arguments are also cited. Because of the very existence of Christmas as an integral celebration espoused by most branches of modern Christianity, it could be argued that this constitutes implicit acceptance of birthdays, contrary to this, it might put into question the legitimacy of Christmas altogether.
वाढदिवस साजरा करण्याबद्दलच्या अंधश्रद्धा[संपादन]
A number of possible superstitious origins for customs associated with Birthday celebrations have been suggested. One source states, that the tradition of birthday parties started in Europe a long time ago. It was feared that evil spirits were particularly attracted to people on their birthdays. To protect them from harm, friends and family would to come be with the birthday person and bring good thoughts and wishes. Giving gifts brought even more good cheer to ward off the evil spirits. This is how birthday parties began. In ancient times, people prayed over the flames of an open fire. They believed that the smoke carried their thoughts up to the gods. Another reference comments, "The various customs with which people today celebrate their birthdays have a long history. Their origins lie in the realm of magic and religion. The customs of offering congratulations, presenting gifts and celebrating - complete with lighted candles - in ancient times were meant to protect the birthday celebrant from the demons and to ensure his security for the coming year. . . . Down to the fourth century Christianity rejected the birthday celebration as a pagan custom."
थोर पुरुष, संत/महात्मा वा आदरणीय व्यक्तीचा जन्मदिवस म्हणजे जयंती. जयंत्यांच्या यादीसाठी जयंत्या पहा.
- WRAL.com Daylight-Saving Causes Twin Arrival Pickle
- Reb Chaim HaQoton: Happy Birthday! April 17, 2007
- "Birthday in Torah". Just Asked. 2009-03-26 रोजी पाहिले.
- Are Birthday Celebrations Christian?
- Re: Happy Birthday - The Phrase Finder