Jump to content

प्रस्ताव (व्यावसायिक)

विकिपीडिया, मुक्‍त ज्ञानकोशातून
ह्या लेखाचा/विभागाचा इंग्रजी किंवा अमराठी भाषेतून मराठी भाषेत भाषांतर करावयाचे बाकी आहे. अनुवाद करण्यास आपलाही सहयोग हवा आहे. ऑनलाईन शब्दकोश आणि इतर सहाय्या करिता भाषांतर प्रकल्पास भेट द्या.

A business proposal is a written offer from a seller to a prospective[मराठी शब्द सुचवा] buyer. Business proposals are often a key step in the complex sales process—i.e., whenever a buyer considers more than price in a purchase.[१]

आढावा Overview[संपादन]

There are three distinct categories of business proposals: formally solicited, informally solicited, and unsolicited. Solicited proposals are written in response to published requirements, contained in a Request for Proposal (RFP), Request for Quotation (RFQ), or an Invitation for Bids (IFB). RFPs provide detailed specifications of what the customers wants to buy and sometimes include directions for preparing the proposal, as well as evaluation criteria the customer will use to evaluate offers. Customers issue RFPs when their needs cannot be met with generally available products or services. Proposals in response to RFPs are seldom less than 10 pages and sometimes reach 1,000's of pages, without cost data.[१]

Customers issue RFQs when they want to buy large amounts of a commodity and price is not the only issue—for example, when availability or delivering or service are considerations. RFQs can be very detailed, so proposals written to RFQs can be lengthy but generally much shorter than an RFP-proposal.[१] RFQ proposals consist primarily of cost data, with small narratives addressing customer issues, such as quality control.

Customers issue IFBs when they are buying some service, such as construction. The requirements are detailed, but the primary consideration is price. For example, a customer provides architectural blueprints for contractors to bid on. These proposals can be lengthy but most of the length comes from cost-estimating data and detailed schedules.[१]

Sometimes before a customer issues an RFP or RFQ or IFB, the customer will issue a Request for Information (RFI). The purpose of the RFI is to gain "marketing intelligence" about what products, services, and vendors are available. RFIs are used to shape final RFPs, RFQs, and IFBs, so potential vendors take great care in responding to these requests, hoping to shape the eventual formal solicitation toward their products or services.[१]

Informally solicited proposals are typically the result of conversations held between a vendor and a prospective customer. The customer is interested enough in a product or service to ask for a proposal. Typically, the customer does not ask for competing proposals from other vendors. This type of proposal is known as a sole-source proposal. There are no formal requirements to respond to, just the information gleaned from customer meetings. These proposals are typically less than 25-pages, with many less than 5 pages.[१]

Unsolicited proposals are marketing brochures. They are always generic, with no direct connection between customer needs or specified requirements. Vendors use them to introduce a product or service to a prospective customer. They are often used as "leave-behinds" at the end of initial meetings with customers or "give-aways" at trade shows or other public meetings. They are not designed to close a sale, just introduce the possibility of a sale.[२]

A proposal puts the buyer's requirements in a context that favors the sellers products and services, and educates the buyer about the capabilities of the seller in satisfying their needs. A successful proposal results in a sale, where both parties get what they want, a win-win situation.[३]

The professional organization devoted to the advancement of the art and science of proposal development is The Association of Proposal Management Professionals.[४]

Components of A Formally Solicited Proposal[संपादन]

  1. Requirements Matrix, which matches customer requirements with the paragraph and page numbers of where those requirements are addressed in the proposal
  2. Executive Summary, which outlines the primary benefits of the vendors's solutions to the customer's requirements
  3. Technical Volume, which demonstrates how each requirement will be met
  4. Management Volume, which describes how the program will be managed
  5. Cost Volume, which provides all costing data, as well as implementation plans and schedules[१]

Components of An Informally Solicited Business Proposal[संपादन]

  1. A description of the seller's capabilities or products
  2. A discussion of key issues
  3. A description of the buyer's specifications and how they will be met
  4. The cost of the offering
  5. A schedule for delivery of the products or services
  6. Proof of prior experience i.e. Testimonials from previous customers, Descriptions of previous projects[३]

हेसुद्धा पाहा[संपादन]

लेखात प्रयूक्त संज्ञा[संपादन]

शब्दाचा विशेष संदर्भ/अर्थ छटा[संपादन]

प्रयूक्त शब्द विशेष संदर्भ/अर्थ छटा
3 4

इंग्रजी मराठी संज्ञा[संपादन]

इंग्रजी मराठी
seller मराठी
buyer मराठी
sales process मराठी
prospective buyer मराठी
formally solicited मराठी
informally solicited मराठी
unsolicited मराठी
Request for Proposal (RFP), मराठी
Request for Quotation (RFQ), मराठी
or an Invitation for Bids (IFB). मराठी
evaluation criteria मराठी
marketing intelligence मराठी
vendors मराठी
brochures मराठी
leave-behinds" मराठी
give-aways मराठी
close a sale मराठी
Requirements Matrix मराठी
Executive Summary मराठी
Technical Volume मराठी
Management Volume मराठी
Cost Volume, मराठी
products मराठी
services मराठी
Testimonials मराठी
Descriptions मराठी
Bidding मराठी
Call for bids मराठी
Construction bidding मराठी
E-procurement मराठी
Procurement मराठी
Presales मराठी


उद्धृत संदर्भ[संपादन]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Newman, Larry. Shipley Associates Proposal Guide, (Proposal Guide Archived 2008-11-11 at the Wayback Machine.)
  2. ^ Khalsa,Mahan. Franklin Covey, Get Real
  3. ^ a b Ricci, Laura; (1996-2007), The Magic of Winning Proposals (publisher R³) ISBN 0-9657399-1-0.
  4. ^ Association of Proposal Management Professionals

इतर संदर्भ[संपादन]

  • Baugh, L. Sue; Hamper, Robert J.;. Handbook For Writing Proposals.CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link)
  • Holtz, Herman;. Proven Proposal Strategies To Win More Business.CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link)
  • Reeds, Kitta;. The Zen of Proposal Writing: An Expert's Stress-Free Path to Winning Proposals.CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link)
  • Ricci, Laura; (1996-2007), The Magic of Winning Proposals (publisher R³) Archived 2011-02-08 at the Wayback Machine. ISBN 0-9657399-1-0.
  • Riley, Patrick G.; (2002), The One Page Proposal: How to Get Your Business Pitch onto One Persuasive Page (New York: HarperCollins) ISBN 978-0060988609.
  • "Capture. Deliver. Excel. - Applying the Principles of Business Writing". Ilja van Roon. Archived from the original on 2010-02-12. May 7, 2006 रोजी पाहिले.