|ह्या लेखाचा/विभागाचा इंग्रजी किंवा अमराठी भाषेतून मराठी भाषेत भाषांतर करावयाचे बाकी आहे. अनुवाद करण्यास आपलाही सहयोग हवा आहे. ऑनलाईन शब्दकोश आणि इतर सहाय्या करिता भाषांतर प्रकल्पास भेट द्या.
In the classic discipline of rhetoric, parrhesia[मराठी शब्द सुचवा] is a figure of speech described as: to speak candidly or to ask forgiveness for so speaking. The term is borrowed from the Greek παρρησία (πᾶν "all" + ῥῆσις / ῥῆμα "utterance, speech") meaning literally "to speak everything" and by extension "to speak freely," "to speak boldly," or "boldness." It implies not only freedom of speech, but the obligation to speak the truth for the common good, even at personal risk.
Usage in Ancient Greece प्राचीन ग्रीस मधील उपयोग[संपादन]
Parrhesia was a fundamental component of the democracy of Classical Athens. In assemblies and the courts Athenians were free to say almost anything, and in the theatre, playwrights such as Aristophanes made full use of the right to ridicule whomever they chose. Elsewhere there were limits to what might be said; freedom to discuss politics, morals, religion, or to criticize people would depend on context: by whom it was made, and when, and how, and where. If a man was seen as immoral, or his views went contrary to popular opinion, then there were great risks involved in making use of such an unbridled freedom of speech, as Socrates found out when he was sentenced to death for (supposedly) introducing new gods and corrupting the young. Parrhesia was also a central concept for the Cynic philosophers, as epitomized in the shameless speech of Diogenes of Sinope.
New Testament use न्यू टेस्टामेंट[संपादन]
A related use of parrhesia is found in the Greek New Testament, where it means "bold speech," the ability of believers to hold their own in discourse before political and religious authorities (e.g. Acts 4:13: "Now when they saw the boldness [την παρρησίαν] of Peter and John and realized that they were uneducated and ordinary men, they were amazed and recognized them as companions of Jesus."). It is also used to describe the reply Jesus made to the Pharisees  . See Heinrich Schlier, "παρρησία, παρρησιάζομαι," Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, Gerhard Kittel and Gerhard Friedrich, Eds. Ann Arbor: Eerdmans, 1967. Vol. V, pp. 871ff.
Modern scholarship आधूनिक दृष्टीकोण[संपादन]
Michel Foucault developed the concept of parrhesia as a mode of discourse in which one speaks openly and truthfully about one's opinions and ideas without the use of rhetoric, manipulation, or generalization . Foucault's use of parrhesia, he tells us, is troubled by our modern day Cartesian model of evidential necessity. For Descartes, truth is the same as the undeniable. Whatever can be doubted must be, and, thus, speech that is not examined or criticized does not necessarily have a valid relation to truth.
There are several conditions upon which the traditional Ancient Greek notion of parrhesia relies. One who uses parrhesia is only recognized as doing so if he (and it is "he" when we consider Greek teachings) holds a credible relationship to the truth, if he serves as critic to either himself or popular opinion or culture, if the revelation of this truth places him in a position of danger and he persists in speaking the truth, nevertheless, as he feels it is his moral, social, and/or political obligation. Further, a user of parrhesia must be in a social position less empowered than those to whom he is revealing. For instance, a pupil speaking the truth to an instructor would be an accurate example of parrhesia, whereas an instructor revealing the truth to his or her pupils would not.
Foucault (1983) sums up the Ancient Greek concept of parrhesia as such:
So you see, the parrhesiastes is someone who takes a risk. Of course, this risk is not always a risk of life. When, for example, you see a friend doing something wrong and you risk incurring his anger by telling him he is wrong, you are acting as a parrhesiastes. In such a case, you do not risk your life, but you may hurt him by your remarks, and your friendship may consequently suffer for it. If, in a political debate, an orator risks losing his popularity because his opinions are contrary to the majority's opinion, or his opinions may usher in a political scandal, he uses parrhesia. Parrhesia, then, is linked to courage in the face of danger: it demands the courage to speak the truth in spite of some danger. And in its extreme form, telling the truth takes place in the "game" of life or death.
To summarize the foregoing, parrhesia is a kind of verbal activity where the speaker has a specific relation to truth through frankness, a certain relationship to his own life through danger, a certain type of relation to himself or other people through criticism (self-criticism or criticism of other people), and a specific relation to moral law through freedom and duty. More precisely, parrhesia is a verbal activity in which a speaker expresses his personal relationship to truth, and risks his life because he recognizes truth-telling as a duty to improve or help other people (as well as himself). In parrhesia, the speaker uses his freedom and chooses frankness instead of persuasion, truth instead of falsehood or silence, the risk of death instead of life and security, criticism instead of flattery, and moral duty instead of self-interest and moral apathy.
लेखात प्रयुक्त संज्ञा[संपादन]
शब्दाचा विशेष संदर्भ/अर्थ छटा[संपादन]
|प्रयूक्त शब्द||विशेष संदर्भ/अर्थ छटा|
इंग्रजी मराठी संज्ञा[संपादन]
- Burton, Gideon O. "Parrhesia". Sylva Rhetoricae. Brigham Young University. 2007-05-24 रोजी पाहिले.
- Robert W. Wallace, The Power to Speak - and not to listen - in Ancient Athens, in Ineke Sluiter, Ralph Mark Rosen, (2002), Free Speech in Classical Antiquity, pages 222-3. BRILL
- John Willoby Roberts, (1984), City of Sokrates, page 148. Routledge
- Luis E. Navia, Diogenes the Cynic, page 179. Humanity Books
-  parrhesia
-  Bill Long, Parrhesia and Earliest Christianity, 12/01/04
-  Discourse and Truth: the Problematization of Parrhesia. six lectures given by Michel Foucault at the University of California at Berkeley, Oct-Nov. 1983
- Michel Foucault, Fearless Speach, p. 15-16
- Michel Foucault, Fearless Speach, p. 19-20
- "Discourse and Truth: the Problematization of Parrhesia. (Six lectures given by Michel Foucault at the University of California at Berkeley, Oct-Nov. 1983)"
- Aphasia and Parrhesia: Code and Speech in the Neural Topographies of the Net. Christina McPhee 
- The Double Criticism of parrhesia. Answering the Question "What is a Progressive (Art) Institution?". Gerald Raunig 
Parrhesia The term was described by Michel Foucault used to the concept of discourse in which one speaks openly and truthful about his own opinions and his ideas without using rhetorical elements, manipulative speech or generalizations.
Foucaults Verwendung von Parrhesia wird durch unsere modernen cartesianischen Modelle des Beweiszwanges getrübt. Foucault's use of Parrhesia is clouded by our modern Cartesian models of evidence coercion. Für Descartes ist Wahrheit dasselbe wie das, was unleugbar ist. For Descartes, truth is the same as that which is undeniable. Wenn es Zweifel geben kann, muss es Zweifel geben. While there may be doubts, there must be doubts. Daher ist die Rede, die nicht genau untersucht oder kritisiert wird, nicht notwendigerweise in eine Beziehung zur Wahrheit zu setzen. Therefore, the question that is not scrutinized or criticized not necessarily share a relationship with the truth.
Es gibt mehrere Bedingungen für die traditionelle altgriechische Idee von Parrhesia . There are several conditions for the traditional ancient Greek idea of Parrhesia. Einer, der Parrhesia verwendet, wird nur als solcher erkannt, wenn er eine glaubwürdige Beziehung zur Wahrheit hat, wenn er sich selber oder populäre Meinungen der Kultur kritisiert, wenn die Offenbarung dieser Wahrheit ihn in Gefahr bringt, und er dennoch die Wahrheit spricht, weil er es als seine moralische , soziale und/oder politische Pflicht erachtet, dies zu tun. One that uses Parrhesia, is only recognized as such if he has a credible relationship with the truth when he himself, or popular views of culture criticism when the revelation of this truth brings him into danger, and yet he speaks the truth, because he considered as his moral, social and / or political obligation to do so. Weiterhin muss eine Parrhesia -sprechende Person in einer sozialen Position sein, die unterhalb derjenigen ist, die sie kritisiert. Furthermore, his must be a Parrhesia-speaking person in a social position which is below that which they criticized. Beispielsweise ein Schüler, der die Wahrheit seiner Lehrerin gegenüber ausspricht, wäre ein zutreffendes Beispiel von Parrhesia ; ein Lehrer jedoch, der die Wahrheit seiner Schülerin mitteilt, ist dies nicht. For example, a student who speaks the truth to his teacher, would be a true example of Parrhesia, a teacher, however, that tells the truth of his pupil, this is not.
Foucault beschreibt Parrhesia so: Foucault describes Parrhesia like this:
"More precisely, parrhesia is a verbal activity in which a speaker expresses his personal relationship to truth, and risks his life because he recognizes truth-telling as a duty to improve or help other people (as well as himself). In parrhesia, the speaker uses his freedom and chooses frankness instead of persuasion, truth instead of falsehood or silence, the risk of death instead of life and security, criticism instead of flattery, and moral duty instead of self-interest and moral apathy."  "More precisely, parrhesia is a verbal activity in which a speaker expresses his personal relationship to truth, and risks his life because he recognizes truth-telling as a duty to improve or help other people (as well as himself). Parrhesia In, The speaker uses his freedom and chooses frankness instead of persuasion, truth instead of falsehood or silence, the risk of death instead of life and security, criticism instead of flattery, and moral duty instead of self-interest and moral apathy. " Literatur [ Bearbeiten ] [Edit] References
* Foucault, Michel: Das Wahrsprechen des Anderen. Foucault, Michel: The speaking truth of the other. Zwei Vorlesungen 1983/84. Frankfurt a. M.: Materialis Verlag, 1988, ISBN 3-88535-106-4 Two Lectures 1983/84. Frankfurt a. M.: materialism Verlag, 1988, ISBN 3-88535-106-4 * Foucault, Michel und Pearson, James (Hrsg.): Diskurs und Wahrheit: Die Problematisierung der Parrhesia. Foucault, Michel, and Pearson, James (ed.): Discourse and truth: the problematization of Parrhesia. Sechs Vorlesungen, gehalten im Herbst 1983 an der Universität von Berkeley/Kalifornien. Berlin: Merve, 1996, ISBN 3-88396-129-9 Six lectures, held in autumn 1983 at the University of Berkeley, California. Berlin: Merve, 1996, ISBN 3-88396-129-9
Weblinks [ Bearbeiten ] [Edit] References
* Michel Foucault : Discourse and Truth: the Problematization of Parrhesia . Michel Foucault: Discourse and Truth: The Problematization of Parrhesia. (six lectures given by Michel Foucault at the University of California at Berkeley, Oct-Nov. 1983)  (six lectures given by Michel Foucault at the University of California at Berkeley, Oct-November 1983)  * Aphasia and Parrhesia: Code and Speech in the Neural Topographies of the Net. Aphasia and Parrhesia: Code and Speech in the Neural Topographies of the Net. Christina McPhee  (en) Christina McPhee  (s) * The Double Criticism of parrhesia. Criticism Of The Double parrhesia. Answering the Question "What is a Progressive (Art) Institution?". Answering the Question "What is a Progressive (Art) Institution?". Gerald Raunig  (en) Raunig,  (en) * Rafael Capurro : Ethik der Informationsgesellschaft. Rafael Capurro: Ethics of the Information Society. Ein interkultureller Versuch . A cross-cultural experiment. 2006  2006