कलणारे ट्रक (यंत्र)

विकिपीडिया, मुक्‍त ज्ञानकोशातून
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ह्या लेखाचा/विभागाचा इंग्रजी किंवा अमराठी भाषेतून मराठी भाषेत भाषांतर करावयाचे बाकी आहे. अनुवाद करण्यास आपलाही सहयोग हवा आहे. ऑनलाईन शब्दकोश आणि इतर सहाय्या करिता भाषांतर प्रकल्पास भेट द्या.



साचा:Global कलणारा ट्रक हा माती, वाळू ,केरकचरा वाहुन नेण्याच्या कामी येतो.या प्रकारच्या ट्रकचा चालकाचे मागे असलेला सामान भरण्याचा डब्बा हा तरलशास्त्राच्या धर्तीवर चालणाऱ्या दट्ट्यास जोडला असून दुसरा मागील भागास बिजागर्‍या लावलेल्या असतात.समोरील भाग उचलला जातो व त्यातील सामग्री ही जमिनीवर पडते.जेथे बांधकामसुरु असते त्या ठिकाणी जे कलणारे ट्रक वापरले जातात त्यास इंग्लंडऑस्ट्रेलियात डंपर ट्रक म्हणतात,तर रस्त्यावर चालणाऱ्या या प्रकारच्या वाहनास टिप्पर म्हणतात. मुलतः हे दोन्ही त्याच्या कार्याचे दृष्टीने एकच आहेत.

केनवर्थ कंपनीचा डम्पर मॉडेल के-१००
इसुझु कंपनीचा टिप्पर

प्रकार[संपादन]

अशोक लेलँड कंपनीचा ट्रक- १० मेट्रिक टनापर्यंत भार नेण्याजोगा

कलणारा ट्रक चा जनक रॉबर्ट टी. मॉवहिने हा होय ज्याने सेंट जॉन ब्रुन्सविक या ठिकाणी,सन १९२० मध्ये साध्या ट्रकच्या मागे डबा लावला. यास उचलण्याचे उपकरण हे एक केबलला जोडलेले चक्र व रहाटयंत्र (विंच) असून, ही सर्व व्यवस्था चालकाच्या मागे एका खांबावर बसविण्यात आली होती.हा तारदोर (केबल) डब्याच्या समोरील भागास खाली जोडली होती आणि ट्रकच्या मागील भागास एका केंद्रकील (पीव्हट)ला जोडली होती. चालक हा एका तरफेच्या सहाय्याने तो डबा उचलु वा ठेवु शकत असे.[१][२] आजकाल बहुतक सर्व ट्रक हे तरलशास्त्रावरील उपकरणे वापरुन चालतात ज्यात, बांधकामांच्या सामानपुरवठ्याच्या साखळीशी संबंधित विशिष्ट कामे करण्यासाठी, अनेकविध प्रकारांची सरमिसळ करण्यात आली असते.

प्रमाणबद्ध कलणारा ट्रक[संपादन]

मागे तीन अॲक्सल असलेला एक ट्रक

एक प्रमाणबद्ध कलणारा ट्रक हा तो होय ज्याच्या चासीला(चॅसिस) डबा लावण्यात आलेला आहे. तो तरलशास्त्रिय धारकने (ram)ट्रकच्या समोरील भागास जोडला असून त्याचा पाठीमागील भाग बिजागर्‍यांनी चौकटीस जोडला असतो. पाठिमागचे दार (असल्यास} त्याच्या वरील भागास ते बिजागर्‍यांनी जोडल्या जाउन झुलते ठेवता येते.त्यास वर उचलण्याची काही प्रकारात वेगळी व्यवस्था असते.

अमेरिकेत अशा प्रकारच्या ट्रक ला समोर एक आस असतो आणि मागे एक वा अनेक आस असतात ज्यास जोड-चाके बसविलेली असतात.सामान्य वापराच्या ट्रकला सहा चाकीम्हणतात.दहा चाकीस मागे दोन आस असतात याप्रमाणे पुढे.यातील सर्वात अजस्त्र ट्रकला मागील बाजुस सात आस असतात.सर्वात पुढील आस वळविण्याच्या कामासाठी असतो तर सर्वात मागील आसास इंजिनाची ताकद पुरविल्या जाते. सर्वात पुढील व सर्वात मागील आसादरम्यान असलेले सर्व आस हे ट्रकच्या चौकटीवरील वजनाचे वितरण समान व योग्य तर्‍हेने व्हावे यासाठी मदत करतात.यात वेगवेगळ्या देशाचे वेगवेगळे प्रकार आहेत.[notes १]याचे संयुक्त वजन ३२ टन राहु शकते.[३]

अमेरिकेतील कलणाऱ्या ट्रकांना पुढे एक ॲक्सल असतो तर मागील बाजूस अनेक ॲक्सल असतात. मागच्या प्रत्येक ॲक्सलला दोन्हीकडे दोन-दोन चाके असतात. सहाचाकी, दहाचाकी आणि सोळाचाकी ट्रकांना मागे एक, दोन आणि तीन ॲक्सल असतात.[notes २] and is limited to 32 tonnes gross weight in most EU countries.[४]

तोकडा चाकतळवा असलेले ट्रक हे जास्त क्षमतेच्या ट्रकपेक्षा त्यास जास्त हाताळण्यायोग्य बनवितात.

डंप ट्रक वा डंपर[संपादन]

डंपर

बांधकाम जगतात, आर्टिक्यूलेटेड डंप ट्रक,ज्यास "युक"ही म्हणतात,यास केबीन व डंप बॉक्स यामध्ये एक बीजागरी असते, पण तो सेमी ट्रेलर ट्रकपेक्षा वेगळा आहे.त्यात केबीन ही वेगळी करता येण्याजोगी नसून, एकसंध असते.स्टेअरिंग हे तरलशास्त्रीय धारकाद्वारे संपूर्ण केबीनला तोलते.अवघड मार्गात याचा जास्त वापर करण्यात येतो.पण यास देखभालीचा खर्च बराच असतो.[५]

ट्रांसफर डंप ट्रक[संपादन]

A transfer dump is a standard dump truck which pulls a separate trailer which can also be loaded with aggregate (gravel, sand, asphalt, klinker, snow, wood chips, triple mix, etc.)

The second aggregate container, (B box)[६] on the trailer, is powered by either an electric, pneumatic motor or hydraulic line,. It rolls on small wheels, riding on rails from the trailer's frame, into the empty main dump (A) box. This maximizes payload capacity without sacrificing the maneuverability of the standard dump truck. Transfer dumps are typically seen in the western United States because of the peculiar weight restrictions on western highways.

Another configuration seen is called a Triple Transfer Train, which consists of a B and C box. These are common on Nevada and Utah Highways but not in California. Depending on the axle arrangement, a Triple Transfer can haul up to 129,000 grams with a special permit in certain US states. The Triple Transfer usually costs a contactor about $105 an hour while a A/B config usually runs about $85 per hour (2007 stats).

Transfer dump trucks typically haul between 26 and 27 tons of aggregate per load, each truck is capable of 3-5 loads per day, generally speaking.

Truck and pup[संपादन]

एक डंप ट्रक

A truck and pup is very similar to a transfer dump. It consists of a standard dump truck pulling a dump trailer. The pup trailer, unlike the transfer, has its own hydraulic ram and is capable of self-unloading.

Superdump truck[संपादन]

A Superdump is a straight dump truck equipped with a trailing axle, a liftable, load-bearing axle rated as high as 13,000 pounds. Trailing 11 to १३ फूट (४.० मी) behind the rear tandem, the trailing axle stretches the outer "bridge" measurement—the distance between the first and last axles—to the maximum overall length allowed. This increases the gross weight allowed under the federal bridge formula, which sets standards for truck size and weight. Depending on the vehicle length and axle configuration, Superdumps can be rated as high as 80,000 pounds GVW and carry 26 tons of payload or more. When the truck is empty or ready to offload, the trailing axle toggles up off the road surface on two hydraulic arms to clear the rear of the vehicle. Truck owners call their trailing axle-equipped trucks Superdumps because they far exceed the payload, productivity, and return on investment of a conventional dump truck. The Superdump and trailing axle concept was developed by Strong Industries of Houston, Texas.

Semi trailer end dump truck[संपादन]

End dump trailer.

A semi end dump is a tractor-trailer combination wherein the trailer itself contains the hydraulic hoist. A typical semi end dump has a 3-axle tractor pulling a 2-axle semi-trailer. The key advantage of a semi end dump is rapid unloading. A key disadvantage is that they are very unstable when raised in the dumping position limiting their use in many applications where the dumping location is uneven or off level.

Semi trailer bottom dump truck[संपादन]

Bottom dump trailer.

A semi bottom dump (or "belly dump") is a 3-axle tractor pulling a 2-axle trailer with a clam shell type dump gate in the belly of the trailer. The key advantage of a semi bottom dump is its ability to lay material in a wind row (a linear heap). In addition, a semi bottom dump is maneuverable in reverse, unlike the double and triple trailer configurations described below. These trailers may be found either of the windrow type shown in the photo, or may be of the 'cross spread' type with the gates opening front to rear instead of left and right. The cross spread gates will actually spread gravel fairly evenly the width of the trailer. by comparison, the windrow gates leave a pile in the middle. The cross spreads jam and do not work well with larger materials. Likewise they are not suitable for use where spreading is not desired such as when hot asphalt paving material is being dumped in front of a paving machine.

Double and triple trailer bottom dump truck[संपादन]

Double and triple bottom dumps consist of a 2-axle tractor pulling one single-axle semi-trailer and an additional full trailer (or two full trailers in the case of triples). These dump trucks allow the driver to lay material in windrows without leaving the cab or stopping the truck. The main disadvantage is the difficulty in backing double and triple units.

The specific type of dump truck used in any specific country is likely to be closely keyed to the weight and axle limitations of that jurisdiction. Rock, dirt and other types of materials commonly hauled in trucks of this type are quite heavy, and almost any style of truck can be easily overloaded. Because of this, this type of truck is frequently configured to take advantage of local weight limitations to maximize the cargo. For example, within the United States, the maximum weight limit of 40 tons throughout the country, except for specific bridges with lower limits. Individual states, in some instances, are allowed to authorize trucks up to 52.5 tons. Most states that do so require that the trucks be very long, to spread the weight over more distance. It is in this context that double and triple bottoms are found within the US.

Side dump truck[संपादन]

A side dump truck consists of a 3-axle tractor pulling a 2-axle semi-trailer. It has hydraulic rams which tilt the dump body onto its side, spilling the material to either the left or right side of the trailer. The key advantages of the side dump are that it allows rapid unloading and can carry more weight in western United States. In addition, it is almost immune to upset (tipping over) while dumping unlike the semi end dumps which are very prone to tipping over. It is, however, highly likely that a side dump trailer will tip over if dumping is stopped prematurely. Also, when dumping lose materials or cobble sized stone, the side dump can become stuck if the pile becomes wide enough to cover too much of the trailer's wheels. Trailers that dump at the appropriate angle (50° for example) avoid the problem of the dumped load fouling the path of the trailer wheels by dumping their loads further to the side of the truck, in some cases leaving sufficient clearance to walk between the dumped load and the trailer.

Off-road dump truck[संपादन]

खाणकामात वापरल्या जाणारे ट्रक
मायनिंग डंप ट्रक

Off-road dump trucks [७] more closely resemble heavy construction equipment or engineering vehicles than they do highway dump trucks. They are used strictly off-road for mining and heavy dirt hauling jobs.

The term ‘Dump’ Truck is not generally used by the mining industry, or by the manufacturers that build these machines. The more appropriate US term for this strictly off road vehicle is, ‘Haul’ truck and the equivalent European term is 'Dumper'. The classification bottom and side for example, describes how the loaded material is discharged once loaded. In the case of the Haul truck illustrated, a Liebherr T 282B the load is discharged to the rear, designating this particular vehicle as an end dump.

Bottom dump normally describes a trailer that discharges its load by opening two clam shell doors under the load space, in some examples several trailers (road train) are pulled by one truck mainly these are on road machines. The only remaining example of what is described as a unitized bottom dump coal hauler is manufactured by Kress Corporation. This large capacity truck is used for the transportation of coal from a loading device (shovel) directly to a power station or bulk storage area.

The current largest off road haul trucks are the Liebherr T282B and the Caterpillar 797F, which both have payloads of 400 short tons. Even though these trucks are similar in capacity the Caterpillar is referred to as a mechanical truck since it uses a C175-20 20 cylinder diesel and big transmissions to power the rear wheels. The Liebherr is referred to as a Diesel-Electric Truck since it uses a diesel engine linked to an alternator that generates electricity which is converted to AC used to power two giant electric motors found on the rear wheel assemblies, similar to a locomotive (it is a series plug-in hybrid). Besides Liebherr and Caterpillar, Hitachi, Terex, Komatsu and others also fabricate such off road haul trucks in different capacities.

हिवाळ्यात सेवा देणारी वाहने[संपादन]

हिवाळ्यात बर्फवृष्टीमुळे,सेवा देणाऱ्या वाहनांची रचना ही डंप ट्रक्स् वरच असते.बर्फावर पसरविण्यासाठीची रसायने याद्वारे वाहिल्या जातात.

धोके[संपादन]

टक्करी[संपादन]

Dump trucks are normally built for some amount of off-road or construction site driving; as the driver is protected by the chassis and height of the driver's seat, bumpers are either placed high or omitted for added ground clearance. The disadvantage is that in a collision with a standard car, the entire motor section or luggage compartment goes under the truck. Thus, passengers in the car could be more severely injured than would be common in a collision with another car. Several countries have made rules that new trucks should have bumpers approximately ४० सेंमी (२० इंच) above ground in order to protect other drivers better. There are also rules about how long the load or construction of the truck can go beyond the rear bumper to prevent cars that rear-end the truck from going under it.[८]

कलविणे[संपादन]

यात लक्षात घेण्याजोगा सुरक्षेचा मुद्दा असा कि,रिता करण्यापूर्वी,ट्रकला योग्य समपातळीवर राखणे.तो रिकामा करतांना,एकाचवेळी अचानकपणे होणारा वजनातील बदल व त्याचा मागचा भाग उचलला गेल्याने आवश्यक असा तोल न सांभाळता येण्याने, कधीकधी ते घसरतात किंवा क्वचितच पलटतातही.

मागे घेतानाचे अपघात[संपादन]

त्यांच्या आकारामुळे व पायी कामगार त्यांच्या चालकाला (ट्रकच्या उंचीमुळे) दिसू न शकल्याने,विषेशतः मागे घेतांना ते अश्या कामगारांना धोकादायक ठरू शकतात.[९]मागचे दृष्य दाखविणारे आरसे(रिअर व्ह्यू मिरर्स) व वाहन मागे घेतेवेळी वाजणारा अलार्म याद्वारे हे धोके कमी होतात.चालकासमवेत एक कामगार असल्यासही हे धोके बरेच कमी होतात.[१०]

शिक्षण[संपादन]

अश्या प्रकारचे ट्रक चालविण्याचे प्रशिक्षणाची एकतर कंपनीतर्फे किंवा प्रशिक्षण संस्थेतर्फे व्यवस्था करण्यात येते.

हे ही बघा[संपादन]

संदर्भ[संपादन]

नोंदी[संपादन]

  1. In the UK, it is more common to refer to the number of wheel hubs, rather than the number of tyres
  2. In the UK, it is more common to refer to the number of wheel hubs, rather than the number of tyres

बाह्य दुवे[संपादन]