लाळ

विकिपीडिया, मुक्‍त ज्ञानकोशातून
(थुंकी या पानावरून पुनर्निर्देशित)
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ह्या लेखाचा/विभागाचा इंग्रजी किंवा अमराठी भाषेतून मराठी भाषेत भाषांतर करावयाचे बाकी आहे. अनुवाद करण्यास आपलाही सहयोग हवा आहे. ऑनलाईन शब्दकोश आणि इतर सहाय्या करिता भाषांतर प्रकल्पास भेट द्या.


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लाळ हा शब्द
विक्शनरी, या मुक्त शब्दकोशात पाहा

संदर्भ[संपादन]

लेखात प्रयूक्त संज्ञा[संपादन]

शब्दाचा विशेष संदर्भ/अर्थ छटा[संपादन]

प्रयूक्त शब्द विशेष संदर्भ/अर्थ छटा
3 4

इंग्रजी मराठी संज्ञा[संपादन]

इंग्रजी मराठी
इंग्रजी मराठी
इंग्रजी मराठी
इंग्रजी मराठी
इंग्रजी मराठी
इंग्रजी मराठी

भाषांतर[संपादन]

Saliva (also referred to as spit , spittle or slobber) is the watery लाळ(यास 'थुंका' वा 'थुंकी' असेही म्हणतात) हा तरल(पाण्यासमान) असून
and usually frothy substance produced in the mouths of humans मानवांच्या तोंडात
and most other animals. Saliva is produced in व बहुतेक प्राण्यांच्या तोंडात तयार होतो
and secreted from the salivary glands. लाळग्रंथीपासून तयार होतो व स्त्रवतो.
Human saliva is composed mostly of water, मानवी लाळेत बहुतकरुन पाणी असते व
but also includes electrolytes, mucus, antibacterial compounds, इलेक्ट्रोलाइट[मराठी शब्द सुचवा],कफ आणि जीवाणुविरोधी घटक
and various enzymes.[१] व वेगवेगळे पाचकरस असतात.[१]
As part of the initial process of food digestion, the enzymes in the saliva break down some of the starch and fat in the food at the molecular level. अन्नपचनाची प्राथमिक क्रिया म्हणुन त्यातील पाचकद्रव्ये विघटीत होउन मॉलीक्युलर [मराठी शब्द सुचवा]पातळीवर स्टार्च व फॅट सोडतात.
Saliva also breaks down food caught in the teeth, लाळ ही दातात अडकलेले अन्न पण सोडविते/तोडते.
protecting them from bacteria that cause decay. Furthermore, saliva lubricates and protects the teeth, the tongue, त्यास दातांची झिज करणार्‍या जीवाणुंपासुन वाचविते,यापुढेही,लाळ ही,दात,जीभ यांचेसाठी वंगणाचे व सुरक्षेचे काम करते
and the tender tissues inside the mouth. व तसेच तोंडातील नाजुक तंतुसाठीही
Saliva also plays an important role in tasting food by trapping thiols produced from odourless food compounds by anaerobic bacteria living in the mouth.[२] मराठी
Various species have evolved special uses for saliva that go beyond predigestion. Some swifts use their gummy saliva to build their nests. Some Aerodramus swiftlet nests are made only from saliva and used to make bird's nest soup.[३] Cobras, vipers, and certain other members of the venom clade hunt with venomous saliva injected by fangs. Some arthropods, such as spiders and caterpillars, create thread from salivary glands. मराठी
Taking a saliva sample for testing

Functions[संपादन]

Digestion[संपादन]

The digestive functions of saliva include moistening food, and helping to create a food bolus, so it can be swallowed easily. || मराठी

Saliva contains the enzyme amylase that breaks some starches down into sugar . मराठी
Thus, digestion of food begins in the mouth. Salivary glands also secrete enzymes (salivary lipase) to start fat digestion. मराठी[४]

Disinfectants[संपादन]

हेसुद्धा पाहा: Wound licking


A common belief is that saliva contained in the mouth has natural disinfectants, which leads people to believe it is beneficial to "lick their wounds". मराठी
Researchers at the University of Florida at Gainesville have discovered a protein called nerve growth factor (NGF) in the saliva of mice. मराठी
Wounds doused with NGF healed twice as fast as untreated and unlicked wounds; मराठी
therefore, saliva can help to heal wounds in some species. मराठी
NGF has not been found in human saliva; however, researchers find human saliva contains such antibacterial agents as secretory IgA, lactoferrin, and peroxidase.[५] It has not been shown that human licking of wounds disinfects them, but licking is likely to help clean the wound by removing larger contaminants such as dirt and may help to directly remove infective bodies by brushing them away. - Therefore, licking would be a way of wiping off pathogens, useful if clean water is not available to the animal or person. मराठी

The mouth of animals is the habitat of many bacteria, some pathogenic. || मराठी

Some diseases, such as herpes, can be transmitted through the mouth. मराठी
Animal (including human) bites are routinely treated with systemic antibiotics because of the risk of septicemia. मराठी

Recent research suggests that the saliva of birds is a better indicator of avian influenza than are faecal samples.[६]|| मराठी

Non-physiological use[संपादन]

Saliva has anti-fog functions.|| मराठी

Scuba divers commonly smear a thin layer of saliva on the inside surface of their goggles to prevent fogging. मराठी
Saliva is an effective cleaning agent used in art conservation.
Cotton swabs coated with saliva are rolled across a painting's surface to delicately remove thin layers of dirt that may accumulate.[७] मराठी

Stimulation[संपादन]

The production of saliva is stimulated both by the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic.[८]|| मराठी

The saliva stimulated by sympathetic innervation is thicker, and saliva stimulated parasympathetically is more watery.|| मराठी

Parasympathetic stimulation leads to acetylcholine (ACh) release onto the salivary acinar cells. ACh binds to muscarinic receptors and causes an increased intracellular calcium ion concentration (through the IP3/DAG second messenger system). || मराठी

Increased calcium causes vesicles within the cells to fuse with the apical cell membrane leading to secretion formation. ACh also causes the salivary gland to release kallikrein, an enzyme that converts kininogen to lysyl-bradykinin. मराठी
Lysyl-bradykinin acts upons blood vessels and capillaries of the salivary gland to generate vasodilation and increased capillary permeability respectively. मराठी
The resulting increased blood flow to the acinar allows production of more saliva. मराठी
Lastly, both parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous stimulation can lead to myoepitheilium contraction which causes the expulsion of secretions from the secretory acinus into the ducts and eventually to the oral cavity. मराठी

Daily salivary output[संपादन]

There is much debate about the amount of saliva that is produced in a healthy person per day. || मराठी

The estimates range from 0.75 liters per day to 1.5 liters per day. मराठी
This suggests that the amount produced varies from person to person. मराठी
However, it is generally accepted that while sleeping the amount usually drops to almost zero. मराठी

Contents[संपादन]

Produced in salivary glands, human saliva is 98% water, but it contains many important substances, including electrolytes, mucus, antibacterial compounds and various enzymes.[१]|| मराठी

It is a fluid containing:|| मराठी

Different reagents used to determine the content of saliva \1. Molisch test gives a positive result of purple color that is costituent to the presence of carbohydrates|| मराठी

संदर्भ[संपादन]

  1. a b c साचा:GeorgiaPhysiology
  2. ^ Christian Starkenmann, Benedicte Le Calvé, Yvan Niclass, Isabelle Cayeux, Sabine Beccucci, and Myriam Troccaz. Olfactory Perception of Cysteine−S-Conjugates from Fruits and Vegetables. J. Agric. Food Chem., 2008; 56 (20): 9575-9580 DOI: 10.1021/jf801873h
  3. ^ Marcone, M. F. (2005).|| मराठी |- |"Characterization of the edible bird's nest the Caviar of the East." Food Research International 38:1125–1134. doi:10.1016/j.foodres.2005.02.008 Abstract retrieved 12 Nov 2007
  4. ^ Maton, Anthea; Jean Hopkins, Charles William McLaughlin, Susan Johnson, Maryanna Quon Warner, David LaHart, Jill D. Wright (1993). Human Biology and Health. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, USA: Prentice Hall. आय.एस.बी.एन. 0-13-981176-1. 
  5. ^ Jorma Tenovuo: Antimicrobial Agents in Saliva—Protection for the Whole Body. Journal of Dental Research 2002, 81(12):807-809
  6. ^ "Saliva swabs for bird flu virus more effective than faecal samples" German Press Agency December 11, 2006 Retrieved 13 November 2007
  7. ^ "Techniques for Cleaning Acrylic". Golden Artist Colors. 2008-09-12 रोजी पाहिले. 
  8. ^ साचा:GeorgiaPhysiology
  9. a b c d Page 928 in: Walter F., PhD. Boron (2003). Medical Physiology: A Cellular And Molecular Approaoch. Elsevier/Saunders. पान क्रमांक 1300. आय.एस.बी.एन. 1-4160-2328-3.