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साचा:जर्नल स्रोत

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Documentation icon साचा दस्तावेजीकरण[बघा] [संपादन] [इतिहास] [पर्ज करा]

वापर

Common parameters, horizontal format (with today's date)

{{cite journal |last= |first= |authorlink= |coauthors= |year= |month= |title= |journal= |volume= |issue= |pages= |id= |url= |accessdate= २०१९-१२-१० |quote= }}

Common parameters, horizontal format

{{cite journal |last= |first= |authorlink= |coauthors= |year= |month= |title= |journal= |volume= |issue= |pages= |id= |url= |accessdate= |quote= }}

Using lastname, firstname Using author (firstname lastname)
{{cite journal
 | quotes = 
 | last = 
 | first = 
 | authorlink = 
 | coauthors = 
 | date = 
 | year = 
 | month = 
 | title = 
 | journal = 
 | volume = 
 | issue = 
 | pages = 
 | publisher = 
 | location = 
 | issn = 
 | pmid = 
 | doi = 
 | bibcode = 
 | oclc =
 | id = 
 | url = 
 | language = 
 | format = 
 | accessdate = 
 | laysummary = 
 | laysource = 
 | laydate = 
 | quote = 
 }}
{{cite journal
 | quotes = 
 | author = 
 | date = 
 | year = 
 | month = 
 | title = 
 | journal = 
 | volume = 
 | issue = 
 | pages = 
 | publisher = 
 | location = 
 | issn = 
 | pmid = 
 | doi = 
 | bibcode = 
 | oclc =
 | id = 
 | url = 
 | language = 
 | format = 
 | accessdate = 
 | laysummary = 
 | laysource = 
 | laydate = 
 | quote = 
 }}
  • quotes: Specify "quotes=no" to disable the quotation marks around the title. If "quotes" is not defined or set to the empty string, the template places quotation marks around the title (default).
  • author: Author
    • last works with first to produce last, first;
    • authorlink works either with author or with last & first to link to the appropriate article (interwiki link)
    • coauthors: allows additional authors
  • date: [[January 1]], [[2006]]. Full date of publication.
    • year: 2006. Year of publication (ignored if the date field is used).
      • month: January. Month of publication (ignored if the date field is used, or if the year field is not used).
  • title: Title of article. This is the only required parameter. All other parameters are optional.
  • journal: Name of the journal or periodical.
  • volume: Volume number of the journal in which the article is found
  • issue: Issue number of the journal in which the article is found
  • pages: 45–47: first page, and optional last page (separated by an en dash –). Manually prepend with p. or pp. if desired.
  • publisher: Publisher of journal or periodical; should not include corporate designation such as "Ltd" or "Inc".
    • location: Place of publication for journal or periodical.
  • issn: The publication's International Standard Serial Number such as 1111-2220
  • pmid: The document's PubMed Unique Identifier, such as 15128012
  • oclc: The periodical's Online Computer Library Center ID number, such as 3185581
  • doi: A digital object identifier for the document, such as 10.1016/j.coi.2004.08.001. The identifier must not contain <, >, [, or ]. If it contains one of these characters, use the id parameter instead; give it an argument with the {{doi}} template, percent-escape the troublesome characters in the doi id, and <nowiki>-escape them as needed in the doi label. For example, instead of this:
        <!-- This does not work -->
        doi=10.1352/0895-8017(2005)110[417:IBTFCW]2.0.CO;2

use this:

        id= {{doi |id= 10.1352/0895-8017(2005)110%5B417:IBTFCW%5D2.0.CO;2
                  |label= <nowiki>10.1352/0895-8017(2005)110[417:IBTFCW]2.0.CO;2</nowiki>
            }}
  • bibcode: The document's bibcode in the Astrophysics Data System, e.g., 1924MNRAS..84..308E
  • id: A unique identifier, used if none of the above are applicable. In this case, you need to specify the kind of identifier you are using, preferably with a template like {{US patent}}, {{MR}} / {{MathSciNet}}, {{Zbl}}, or {{JFM}}. (Use one of the more specialized parameters if possible; they are linked automatically. In other words, don't use id = PMID 15128012 anymore. Use pmid = 15128012.)
  • url: URL of a copy of the article, if available online.
    • format: Format, e.g. PDF. Don't specify for HTML (implied as default).
      Specify as 'fee required' if free access no longer available.
      Specify as 'Reprint' if a full original version but not hosted by the original publisher.
  • accessdate: Full date when URL was last checked. Use ISO 8601 YYYY-MM-DD format, for example "accessdate = २०१९-१२-१०". Must not be wikilinked

For producing a non-wikilinked date of retrieval:

  • accessmonthday and accessyear: Month and day when item was accessed, for example "accessmonthday = May 10", and year when item was accessed, for example "accessyear = 2005". Produces: Retrieved on May 10, 2006.
  • accessdaymonth and accessyear: Month and day when item was accessed, for example "accessmonthday = 10 May", and year when item was accessed, for example "accessyear = 2005". Produces: Retrieved on 10 May 2006.
  • laysummary: URL of a lay summary, which could be in a popular science magazine or newspaper.
    • laysource: Name of the source, e.g. The Guardian (UK newspaper) or New Scientist.
    • laydate: Date of publication or, where this is not available, date of retrieval of the lay summary.
  • quote: Relevant excerpt from the journal.

An alternate method of adding one or more references to common media (preferably in Layman's terms) from the related journal citation can be specified within a single <ref>...</ref> tag using other citation templates; for example:

Text in the article.<ref>{{cite journal | ... }}<br/>
'''Related news articles:'''
*{{cite news | ... }}
*{{cite web | ... }}</ref>

Examples

Formal citation
{{cite journal |last=Smith |first=Joseph III |title=Last Testimony of Sister Emma |journal=The Saints' Herald |volume=26 |year=1879 |month=October |pages=289 }}
Smith, Joseph III (October 1879). "Last Testimony of Sister Emma". The Saints' Herald 26: 289. 
Include URL link to free-article, pre-print or abstract
{{cite journal |last=Smith |first=Joseph III |title=Last Testimony of Sister Emma |journal=The Saints' Herald |volume=26 |issue=19 |date=[[October 1]], [[1879]] |pages=289 |url=http://www.lavazone2.com/dbroadhu/IL/sain1872.htm#100179 |accessdate=2006-03-23 }}
Smith, Joseph III (October 1, 1879). "Last Testimony of Sister Emma". The Saints' Herald 26 (19): 289. 2006-03-23 रोजी पाहिले. 
Specify the DOI to provide a permanent and direct link to the article from the publisher
{{cite journal |last=Giles |first=Jim |title=Preprint Server Seeks Way to Halt Plagiarists |url=http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v426/n6962/full/426007a.html |journal=Nature |date=6 November 2003 |pages=7 |doi=10.1038/426007a }}
Giles, Jim (6 November 2003). "Preprint Server Seeks Way to Halt Plagiarists". Nature: 7. डी.ओ.आय.:10.1038/426007a. 
Other examples
  • {{cite journal |last=Fowler |first=Martin |authorlink=Martin Fowler |coauthors=Kent Beck |title=Last Testimony of Sister Emma |journal=The Saints' Herald |volume=26 |year=1879 |month=October |pages=289 }}
Fowler, Martin; Kent Beck (October 1879). "Last Testimony of Sister Emma". The Saints' Herald 26: 289. 
  • {{cite journal |first=W. Hugh |last=Woodin |title=The Continuum Hypothesis, Part I |journal=Notices of the AMS |volume=48 |issue=6 |year=2001 |pages=567–576 |location=Providence, RI |publisher=American Mathematical Society |url=http://www.ams.org/notices/200106/fea-woodin.pdf |language=Greek |format=PDF |issn=1088-9477 |oclc=34550461 }}
Woodin, W. Hugh (2001). "The Continuum Hypothesis, Part I" (PDF). Notices of the AMS (Greek मजकूर) (Providence, RI: American Mathematical Society) 48 (6): 567–576. ISSN 1088-9477. OCLC 34550461. 
  • {{cite journal |title=Disney Releases 10 Titles on Laser Videodisc |year=1982 |journal=VIDEODISC/VIDEOTEX |volume=2 |issue=3 |pages=175 }}
"Disney Releases 10 Titles on Laser Videodisc". VIDEODISC/VIDEOTEX 2 (3): 175. 1982. 

Useful links

See also

TemplateData

यथादृश्यसंपादक व इतर साधनांसाठी वापरण्यात येणारे हे टेम्प्लेटडाटा दस्तावेजीकरण आहे.

जर्नल स्रोत साठी टेम्प्लेटडाटा

This template formats a citation to an article in a magazine or journal, using the provided source information (e.g. journal name, author, title, issue, URL) and various formatting options.

साच्याचे प्राचल (पॅरामिटर्स)

ह्या टेंप्लेटचे प्रारुपण आपण आपल्या इच्छेप्रमाणे करु शकता.

प्राचलवर्णनप्रकारस्थिती
Last namelast author author1 authors last1

The surname of the author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink'; can suffix with a numeral to add additional authors

ओळसुचविलेले
First namefirst first1

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink'; can suffix with a numeral to add additional authors

ओळसुचविलेले
Author linkauthor-link authorlink

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the author; can suffix with a numeral to add additional authors

पानऐच्छिक
Last name 2last2 author2

The surname of the second author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink2'.

ओळऐच्छिक
First name 2first2

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the second author; don't wikilink.

ओळऐच्छिक
Author link 2author-link2 author2-link authorlink2

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the second author.

पानऐच्छिक
Last name 3last3 author3

The surname of the third author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink3'.

ओळऐच्छिक
First name 3first3

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the third author; don't wikilink.

ओळऐच्छिक
Author link 3author-link3 author3-link authorlink3

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the third author.

पानऐच्छिक
Last name 4last4 author4

The surname of the forth author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink4'.

ओळऐच्छिक
First name 4first4

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the forth author; don't wikilink.

ओळऐच्छिक
Author link 4author-link4 author4-link authorlink4

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the forth author.

पानऐच्छिक
Last name 5last5 author5

The surname of the fifth author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink5'.

ओळऐच्छिक
First name 5first5

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the fifth author; don't wikilink.

ओळऐच्छिक
Author link 5author-link5 author5-link authorlink5

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the sixth author.

पानऐच्छिक
Last name 6last6 author6

The surname of the sixth author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink6'.

ओळऐच्छिक
First name 6first6

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the sixth author; don't wikilink.

ओळऐच्छिक
Author link 6author-link6 author6-link authorlink6

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the sixth author.

पानऐच्छिक
Last name 7last7 author7

The surname of the seventh author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink7'.

ओळऐच्छिक
First name 7first7

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the seventh author; don't wikilink.

ओळऐच्छिक
Author link 7author-link7 author7-link authorlink7

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the seventh author.

पानऐच्छिक
Last name 8last8 author8

The surname of the eighth author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink8'.

ओळऐच्छिक
First name 8first8

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the eighth author; don't wikilink.

ओळऐच्छिक
Author link 8author-link8 author8-link authorlink8

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the eighth author.

पानऐच्छिक
Last name 9last9 author9

The surname of the ninth author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink9'. If nine authors are defined, then only eight will show and 'et al.' will show in place of the last author.

ओळऐच्छिक
First name 9first9

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the ninth author; don't wikilink.

ओळऐच्छिक
Author link 9author-link9 author9-link authorlink9

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the ninth author.

पानऐच्छिक
Display authorsdisplayauthors display-authors

number of authors to display before 'et al.' is used;

आकडाऐच्छिक
Author maskauthor-mask

Replaces the name of the first author with em dashes or text; set to a numeric value 'n' to set the dash 'n' em spaces wide; set to a text value to display the text without a trailing author separator; for example, 'with' instead

तंतूऐच्छिक
Last author ampersandlast-author-amp lastauthoramp

When set to any value, changes the separator between the last two names of the author list to 'space ampersand space'

बुलियन (Boolean)ऐच्छिक
Author separatorauthor-separator

Changes the separator between authors; defaults to a semicolon and space; a space must be encoded as &#32;

अविचल
;
ओळऐच्छिक
Author name separatorauthor-name-separator

Changes the separator between last and first names; defaults to a comma and space; a space must be encoded as &#32;

अविचल
,
ओळऐच्छिक
Vancouver style authorsvauthors

comma-separated list of author names in Vancouver style; enclose corporate or institutional author names in doubled parentheses

अज्ञातऐच्छिक
Source datedate

Date of the source; do not wikilink. As listed in the publication

उदाहरण
Summer 2017
दिनांकसुचविलेले
Year of publicationyear

Year of the source being referenced; recommended only when date parameter format is YYYY-MM-DD and a CITEREF disambiguator is needed

आकडाऐच्छिक
Original yearorig-year origyear

Original year of publication; provide specifics

आकडाऐच्छिक
Editor last nameeditor-last editor1-last

The surname of the editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor-link'; can suffix with a numeral to add additional editors; alias of 'editor1-last', 'editor'

ओळऐच्छिक
Editor first nameeditor-first editor1-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor-link'; can suffix with a numeral to add additional editors; alias of 'editor1-first'

ओळऐच्छिक
Editor linkeditor-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the editor; can suffix with a numeral to add additional editors; alias of 'editor1-link'

पानऐच्छिक
Editor last name 2editor2-last editor2

The surname of the second editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor2-link'.

ओळऐच्छिक
Editor first name 2editor2-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the second editor; don't wikilink.

ओळऐच्छिक
Editor link 2editor2-link editor2link editorlink2

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the second editor.

पानऐच्छिक
Editor last name 3editor3-last editor3

The surname of the third editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor3-link'.

ओळऐच्छिक
Editor first name 3editor3-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the third editor; don't wikilink.

ओळऐच्छिक
Editor link 3editor3-link editor3link editorlink3

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the third editor.

पानऐच्छिक
Editor last name 4editor4-last editor4

The surname of the fourth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor4-link'.

ओळऐच्छिक
Editor first name 4editor4-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the fourth editor; don't wikilink.

ओळऐच्छिक
Editor link 4editor4-link editor4link editorlink4

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the fourth editor.

पानऐच्छिक
Editor last name 5editor5-last editor5

The surname of the fifth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor5-link'.

ओळऐच्छिक
Editor first name 5editor5-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the fifth editor; don't wikilink.

ओळऐच्छिक
Editor link 5editor5-link editor5link editorlink5

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the fifth editor.

पानऐच्छिक
Editor last name 6editor6-last editor6

The surname of the sixth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor6-link'.

ओळऐच्छिक
Editor first name 6editor6-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the sixth editor; don't wikilink.

ओळऐच्छिक
Editor link 6editor6-link editor6link editorlink6

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the sixth editor.

पानऐच्छिक
Editor last name 7editor7-last editor7

The surname of the seventh editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor7-link'.

ओळऐच्छिक
Editor first name 7editor7-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the seventh editor; don't wikilink.

ओळऐच्छिक
Editor link 7editor7-link editor7link editorlink7

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the seventh editor.

पानऐच्छिक
Editor last name 8editor8-last editor8

The surname of the eighth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor8-link'.

ओळऐच्छिक
Editor first name 8editor8-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the eighth editor; don't wikilink.

ओळऐच्छिक
Editor link 8editor8-link editor8link editorlink8

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the eighth editor.

पानऐच्छिक
Editor last name 9editor9-last editor9

The surname of the ninth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor9-link'.

ओळऐच्छिक
Editor first name 9editor9-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the ninth editor; don't wikilink.

ओळऐच्छिक
Editor link 9editor9-link editor9link editorlink9

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the ninth editor.

पानऐच्छिक
Othersothers

Used to record other contributions to the work, such as 'Illustrated by John Smith' or 'Translated by John Smith'

आशयऐच्छिक
Titletitle

The title of the article; can be wikilinked to an existing Wikipedia article or url may be used to add an external link, but not both. Displays in quotes.

आशयहवे
Script titlescript-title

For titles in languages that do not use a Latin-based alphabet (Arabic, Chinese, Cyrillic, Greek, Hebrew, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, etc). Prefix with two-character ISO639-1 language code followed by a colon. For Japanese use: |script-title=ja:...

ओळऐच्छिक
Translated titletrans-title trans_title

An English language title, if the source cited is in a foreign language; 'language' is recommended

आशयऐच्छिक
URLurl URL

The URL of the online location where the text of the publication can be found. Requires schemes of the type "http://..." or maybe even the &nbsp;protocol relative scheme "//..."

उदाहरण
https://www.nytimes.com/...
ओळसुचविलेले
Dead URLdead-url deadurl

If set to 'no', the title display is adjusted; useful for when the URL is archived preemptively but still live

ओळऐच्छिक
Formatformat

Format of the work referred to by 'url' ('url' is required when using 'format'); examples: PDF, DOC, XLS; do not specify HTML

आशयऐच्छिक
Departmentdepartment

Department within the periodical

तंतूऐच्छिक
Journaljournal

Name of the source journal; may be wikilinked; displays in italics; alias of 'work'

आशयहवे
Chapterchapter

The chapter heading of the source

तंतूऐच्छिक
Typetype

Additional information about the media type of the source; format in sentence case

आशयऐच्छिक
Seriesseries version

Series identifier when the source is part of a series, such as a book series or a journal; alias of 'version'

आशयऐच्छिक
Languagelanguage

The language in which the source is written, if not English; use the full language name; do not use icons or templates

आशयऐच्छिक
Editionedition

When the publication has more than one edition; for example: '2nd', 'Revised' etc.; suffixed with ' ed.'

ओळऐच्छिक
Location of publicationlocation

Geographical place of publication; usually not wikilinked; omit when the publication name includes place; alias of 'place'

तंतूऐच्छिक
Publisherpublisher

Name of the publisher; displays after title

आशयऐच्छिक
Place of publicationpublication-place

Publication place shows after title; if 'place' or 'location' are also given, they are displayed before the title prefixed with 'written at'

आशयऐच्छिक
Publication datepublication-date

Date of publication when different from the date the work was written; do not wikilink

दिनांकऐच्छिक
Volumevolume

For one publication published in several volumes

ओळसुचविलेले
Issueissue

Issue identifier when the source is part of a series that is published periodically

ओळऐच्छिक
Pagepage

Page in the source that supports the content; displays after 'p.'

ओळऐच्छिक
Pagespages

Pages in the source that support the content (not an indication of the number of pages in the source; displays after 'pp.'

ओळसुचविलेले
Atat

May be used instead of 'page' or 'pages' where a page number is inappropriate or insufficient

ओळऐच्छिक
No ppnopp

Set to 'y' to suppress the 'p.' or 'pp.' display with 'page' or 'pages' when inappropriate (such as 'Front cover')

ओळऐच्छिक
arXiv identifierarxiv

An identifier for arXive electronic preprints of scientific papers

ओळऐच्छिक
ASINasin

Amazon Standard Identification Number; 10 characters

ओळऐच्छिक
ASIN TLDasin-tld

ASIN top-level domain for Amazon sites other than the US

ओळऐच्छिक
Bibcodebibcode

Bibliographic Reference Code (REFCODE); 19 characters

ओळऐच्छिक
biorXivbiorxiv

biorXiv identifier; 6 digits

ओळऐच्छिक
CiteSeerXciteseerx

CiteSeerX identifier; found after the 'doi=' query parameter

ओळऐच्छिक
DOIdoi

Digital Object Identifier; begins with '10.'

तंतूऐच्छिक
DOI broken datedoi-broken-date

The date that the DOI was determined to be broken

दिनांकऐच्छिक
ISBNisbn

International Standard Book Number; use the 13-digit ISBN where possible

ओळऐच्छिक
ISSNissn

International Standard Serial Number (print); 8 characters; usually split into two groups of four using a hyphen

ओळऐच्छिक
eISSNeissn

International Standard Serial Number (online); 8 characters; usually split into two groups of four using a hyphen

ओळऐच्छिक
jfm codejfm

Jahrbuch über die Fortschritte der Mathematik classification code

ओळऐच्छिक
JSTORjstor

JSTOR identifier

ओळऐच्छिक
LCCNlccn

Library of Congress Control Number

ओळऐच्छिक
MRmr

Mathematical Reviews identifier

ओळऐच्छिक
OCLCoclc

Online Computer Library Center number

आकडाऐच्छिक
OLol

Open Library identifier

ओळऐच्छिक
OSTIosti

Office of Scientific and Technical Information identifier

ओळऐच्छिक
PMCpmc

PubMed Center article number

आकडाऐच्छिक
PMIDpmid

PubMed Unique Identifier

ओळऐच्छिक
RFCrfc

Request for Comments number

आकडाऐच्छिक
SSRNssrn

Social Science Research Network

ओळऐच्छिक
Zblzbl

Zentralblatt MATH journal identifier

ओळऐच्छिक
idid

A unique identifier used where none of the specialized ones are applicable

ओळऐच्छिक
URL access levelurl-access

Classification of the access restrictions on the URL ('registration', 'subscription' or 'limited')

तंतूऐच्छिक
Archive URLarchive-url archiveurl

The URL of an archived copy of a web page, if or in case the URL becomes unavailable; requires 'archivedate'

ओळऐच्छिक
Archive datearchive-date archivedate

Date when the original URL was archived; do not wikilink

दिनांकऐच्छिक
URL access dateaccess-date accessdate

The full date when the original URL was accessed; do not wikilink

दिनांकऐच्छिक
Registrationregistration

If the reference requires registration, type 'yes' to notify the reader.

तंतूऐच्छिक
Subscriptionsubscription

If the reference requires a subscription, type 'yes' to notify the reader.

तंतूऐच्छिक
Lay URLlay-url layurl

URL link to a non-technical summary or review of the source; alias of 'laysummary'

ओळऐच्छिक
Lay sourcelay-source laysource

Name of the source of the laysummary; displays in italics, preceded by an en dash

तंतूऐच्छिक
Lay datelay-date laydate

Date of the summary; displays in parentheses

दिनांकऐच्छिक
Quotequote

Relevant text quoted from the source; displays last, enclosed in quotes; needs to include terminating punctuation

आशयऐच्छिक
Postscriptpostscript

The closing punctuation for the citation; ignored if 'quote' is defined; to suppress use reserved keyword 'none'

अविचल
.
ओळऐच्छिक
Refref

An anchor identifier; can be made the target of wikilinks to full references; special value 'harv' generates an anchor suitable for the harv and sfn templates

ओळऐच्छिक
Separatorseparator

The punctuation used to separate lists of authors, editors, etc.; a space must be encoded as &#32; to suppress use reserved keyword 'none'

अविचल
.
ओळऐच्छिक
Content deliverer (i.e. Database)via

Provider of the article (not the publisher), usually an aggregator of journal articles or a repository

उदाहरण
JSTOR, Project MUSE, Elsevier Science Direct
तंतूसुचविलेले
Bibcode access levelbibcode-access

If the full text is available from ADS via this Bibcode, type 'free'.

तंतूऐच्छिक
DOI access leveldoi-access

If the full text is free to read via the DOI, type 'free'.

तंतूऐच्छिक
HDL access levelhdl-access

If the full text is free to read via the HDL, type 'free'.

तंतूऐच्छिक
Jstor access leveljstor-access

If the full text is free to read on Jstor, type 'free'.

तंतूऐच्छिक
OpenLibrary access levelol-access

If the full text is free to read on OpenLibrary, type 'free'.

तंतूऐच्छिक
HDL access levelosti-access

If the full text is free to read on OSTI, type 'free'.

तंतूऐच्छिक