सहाय्य:आंतरराष्ट्रीय उच्चारदर्शक मुळाक्षरे (IPA)

विकिपीडिया, मुक्‍त ज्ञानकोशातून

युरोपियन आणि ब्राझीलियन पोर्तुगीज सूची[संपादन]

IPA व्यंजने
Examples English approximation
b b beiço, âmbar, sob best
β cabeça, sobre[१] between baby and bevy (EP),
best (BP)
ð d cedo, idade[१] other (EP), dice (BP)
d dedo, lenda dice
digo, admite, idade[२] dice (EP), soldier (BP)
f fado, café face
ɡ ɡ gato, signo, bingo, guerra get
ɣ fogo, figueira between ago and ahold (EP),
get (BP)
k cor, dica, quente, kiwi scan
l l lua, alô lot
w mal[३] toll (EP), tow (BP)
ʎ| lhe, velho[४] million
m mês, somo might
n não, sono not
ɲ| nhoque, sonho canyon
p pó, sopa, apto spouse
ʁ ʁ rio, carro, enrascado,[५][६] lingerie guttural r
ɾ r, porto, por favor[५][६][७] US latter (EP), guttural r (BP)
ɾ frio, caro, por acaso[६][७] US latter
s saco, isso, braço, máximo sack
ʃ escola, as portas, dez, texto[८] sheep (EP), sack (BP)
ʃ chave, achar, xarope, baixo, sushi sheep
tchau, atchim chip
t tipo, ritmo, ponte[२] stand (EP), chip (BP)
t tempo, átomo stand
v vela, livro vest
ʒ ʒ já, gente rouge
z rasgo, os meus[८] rouge (EP), zebra (BP)
z casa, os amigos, doze, existir zebra
IPA Semivowels[९]
Examples English approximation
j saia, pais, cães, nuvem you, boy
w frequente, quão, mau, Cauã, vejam quick, glow
IPA Stressed vowels
(or with secondary stress)
Examples English approximation
a a alzheimer, Jaime,[१०] dá, lámen, àquele father
ɐ falámos, falamos,[११] andaime[१०] father, purse (RP)
ɐ falamos, câmera, bug purse (RP)
ɛ ɛ meta, sé, Émerson, cafezinho set
e prémio, prêmio set, they
e meto, sê[१२] they
i si, dia, país, suíço, rainha,[१३] diesel see
ɔ ɔ formosa, formosos, avó, somente UK lot
o Antônio, António UK lot, US  row
o avô, formoso US row
u rua, lúcido, saúde boot
IPA Unstressed स्वर
ɐ ɐ taça, manhã[१४] about
a maior, aquele, da about, grandma
a Camões, caveira grandma
ɛ e incrível, segmento[१५] access, survey
ɨ semáforo emission, survey
i jure, pequeno,[१६] se emission, happy
i júri, meandro, e, doe[१७] happy
ɔ o hospital[१५] royale, US arrow
u sortudo outlook, US arrow
u evacuar, boneco,[१६] vi-o, voo, frio[१७] outlook
IPA Suprasegmentals
Stress and syllabification
Examples Explanation
ˈ João [ʒuˈɐ̃w] (EP, BP) lexical stress
ˌ Vila-Chã [ˌvilɐˈʃɐ̃] (EP, BP) secondary stress
. Rio [ˈʁi.u] (EP, BP) syllable break
IPA Diacritics
◌̃ Chã [ˈʃɐ̃] (EP, BP)[१८] nasal vowel
◌̥ silent vowel
IPA Other representations
( ) Douro [ˈdo(w)ɾu] (EP, BP) optional sound
  1. ^ a b In northern and central Portugal, /b/, /d/, and /ɡ/ are lenited to fricatives of the same place of articulation (साचा:IPAblink, साचा:IPAblink, and साचा:IPAblink, respectively) in all places except after a pause, or a nasal vowel, in which contexts they are stops [b, d̪|d}}, ɡ}}]}}, not dissimilar from English b, d, g (Mateus & d'Andrade 2000:11). Most often, it happens only in southern and insular Portugal and in Brazil in some unstressed syllables, generally in relaxed speech, but this is by no means universal.
  2. ^ a b In most varieties of Brazilian Portuguese, /d, t/ are palatalized and affricated to post-alveolar before high front स्वर /i, ĩ/ except in certain dialects of Northeast of Brazil, such as Central northeastern Portuguese /d, t/ are preferably pronounced alveolar or dental mode before high front स्वर /i, ĩ/).
  3. ^ Final /l/ is velarized in European Portuguese.
  4. ^ /ʎ/ has merged with साचा:IPAblink in some dialects of Brazilian Portuguese, specially the caipira one.
  5. ^ a b The rhotic consonant represented as /ʁ/ has considerable variation across different variants, being pronounced as साचा:IPAblink, साचा:IPAblink, साचा:IPAblink, साचा:IPAblink, साचा:IPAblink, etc., in Brazil and as साचा:IPAblink, साचा:IPAblink, साचा:IPAblink, etc., in Portugal. See also Guttural R in Portuguese.
  6. ^ a b c The rhotic consonants /ɾ/ साचा:Angbr and /ʁ/ साचा:Angbr contrast only between स्वर. Otherwise, they are in complementary distribution as साचा:Angbr, with /ʁ/ occurring word-initially, after साचा:Angbr, साचा:Angbr, and साचा:Angbr and in compounds; /ɾ/ is found elsewhere.
  7. ^ a b The realization of syllable-final साचा:Angbr varies amongst dialects; it is generally pronounced as an alveolar tap साचा:IPAblink in European Portuguese and some Brazilian dialects (e.g. Rio Grande do Sul state and São Paulo city), as a coronal approximant (साचा:IPAblink or साचा:IPAblink) in various other Brazilian dialects, and as a guttural R in all others (e.g. Rio de Janeiro city, the overwhelmingly majority from the Northeast). Additionally, in some Brazilian Portuguese dialects, word-final साचा:Angbr may be weakened to complete elision in infinitives; e.g. ficar [fiˈka] (no साचा:Angbr is pronounced but as a tap [ɾ] only if it is followed by a vowel sound in the same phrase or prosodic unit: ficar ao léu [fiˈkaɾ aw ˈlɛw]). This is very similar to the linking R used in some accents of English, e.g. Received Pronunciation or Australian English.
  8. ^ a b Mostly in Brazil, the fricatives /s/ and /z/ are not palatalized between syllables or coda positions, but there is a strong palatalization of them in some dialects, such as fluminense, carioca, northern, recifense and florianopolitan (/s/ becomes /ʃ/ and /z/ becomes /ʒ/). Since in most dialects of the northeast region of Brazil, palatalization of fricatives occurs only before stop or affricate consonants (/d, t, dʒ, tʃ/), such in as the word texto [ˈteʃtu].
  9. ^ Intervocalic glides are ambisyllabic, they're part of previous falling diphthongs and they're geminated to next syllable onset. Examples of such pronunciations are goiaba [ɡojˈjabɐ] and Cauã for [kawˈwɐ̃].
  10. ^ a b Most Brazilian dialects have closed साचा:Angbr for stressed sequences साचा:Angbr when it comes before /m/ and /n/. In many dialects it is also nasalized. Many speakers of those dialects, including broadcast media has open साचा:Angbr for some words like Jaime and Roraima.
  11. ^ First-person plural past tense in European Portuguese has open साचा:Angbr, and present tense has closed साचा:Angbr. Both conjugated with closed साचा:Angbr in Brazilian Portuguese
  12. ^ In the dialect of Lisbon, /e/ merges with /ɐ/ when it comes before palatal sounds (e.g. abelha, venho, jeito).
  13. ^ There is no diphthong before palatal consonant, so hiatuses are not indicated before /ɲ/ (e.g. rainha /ʁaˈiɲɐ/).
  14. ^ In Brazilian Portuguese, pre-stressed close साचा:Angbr only is obligatory before /ɲ/, and has tendency to raise before other nasal consonant. In many dialects nasalization also is obligatory before /ɲ/, Wetzel proposes such nasalized dialects have phonemic palatal gemination (e.g. canhoto /kaɲˈɲotu/ [kɐ̃ˈɲotu]). See Consoantes palatais como geminadas fonológicas no Português Brasileiro*
  15. ^ a b The "northern dialects" (restricted to North and Northeast Brazil) and Rio de Janeiro do not follow the Standard Brazilian Portuguese pronunciation in terms of unstressed vocalism (the standard pronunciation of these स्वर are always closed /e, o/, as in "perereca" [peɾeˈɾɛkɐ] and "horário" [oˈɾaɾju], but on those dialects, they are open स्वर /ɛ, ɔ/, and the pronunciations of these words to change for [pɛɾɛˈɾɛkɐ] and [ɔˈɾaɾju].
  16. ^ a b In words such as "perigo" [pɪˈɾiɡu] and "boneco" [bʊˈnɛku], for example, स्वर साचा:Angbr pre-stressed syllables may be pronounced, respectively, as [ɪ, ʊ] in some varieties of Brazilian Portuguese, instead of [i, u].
  17. ^ a b Some of the post-stressed high स्वर in hiatuses, as in frio ('cold') and rio ('river'), may vary between a reduced vowel [ˈfɾi.u] and a glide [ˈfɾiw], exceptions are verbal conjugations, forming pairs like eu rio [ˈew ˈʁi.u] (I laugh) and ele riu [ˈelɨ ˈʁiw] (he laughed).
  18. ^ Nasal स्वर in Portuguese are /ɐ̃/, /ẽ/, /ĩ/, /õ/ and /ũ/