टिपूचा वाघ

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कोरलेली आणि पेंट केलेली लाकडी आच्छादन वाघाचे प्रतिनिधित्व करते ज्यात जवळच्या आयुष्यातील युरोपियन माणसाला वाचवले जाते. वाघाच्या आत असलेल्या यंत्रणेत आणि माणसाच्या शरीरात माणसाचा एक हात सरकतो, त्याच्या तोंडातून एक रडणारा आवाज निघतो आणि वाघापासून कुरकुर करतो. याव्यतिरिक्त वाघाच्या बाजूस एक तडकाफडकी खाली घसरते ज्यामुळे 18 नोटांच्या छोट्या पाईप अवयवाचा कीबोर्ड उघडला जातो.

पार्श्वभूमी[संपादन]

Tipu's Tiger with the organ keyboard visible

टीपूचा वाघ मूळतः टीपू सुलतानसाठी म्हैसूरच्या राज्यात (आज भारतीय कर्नाटक राज्यामध्ये) सुमारे १७९५ च्या सुमारास बनविला गेला होता. टीपू सुलतानने आपल्या शस्त्रास्त्रे, त्यांच्या सैनिकांच्या गणवेशावर वाघांचे स्वरुप नियोजित पद्धतीने वापरले. त्याच्या वाड्यांच्या सजावटीवर. त्याच्या सिंहासनावर सोन्याच्या आच्छादलेल्या बहुधा अशाच जीवनाच्या आकाराचे लाकडी वाघ होते; इतर मौल्यवान खजिन्यांप्रमाणेच हा ब्रिटीश सैन्यात भाग घेतलेल्या अत्यंत संयोजित बक्षीस निधीसाठीही तुटला होता.

टीपूला वडील हैदर अली या मुस्लिम सैनिकांद्वारे सत्ता मिळाली होती, जो सत्ताधारी हिंदु वोडेयार राजघराण्यातील दलवाई किंवा सेनापती सेनापती म्हणून उठला होता, परंतु १७६० पासून हा राज्य शासक होता.  सुरुवातीला मराठ्यांविरूद्ध ब्रिटिशांशी मैत्री करण्याचा प्रयत्न केल्यानंतर हेडर नंतर त्यांचा ठाम शत्रू बनला होता कारण त्यांनी त्याच्या राज्याच्या विस्तारासाठी सर्वात प्रभावी अडथळा दर्शविला आणि टीपू हिंसकपणे ब्रिटिशविरोधी भावनांनी वाढले.
टीपूने युरोपियन, बर्‍याचदा विशेषत: ब्रिटीश, ज्यावर वाघ किंवा हत्तींनी आक्रमण केले किंवा मारले गेले, छळ केले, अपमानित केले आणि इतर प्रकारे आक्रमण केले, अशा आकृती दर्शविनाऱ्या टीपूने बनवलेल्या मोठ्या कॅरिकेचर प्रतिमांच्या विशिष्ट गटाचा एक भाग वाघाने बनविला.  टिपूची राजधानी सरिंगपटमच्या मुख्य रस्त्यांवरील घरांच्या बाह्य भिंतींवर टिपूच्या आदेशामुळे यापैकी बरेच जण रंगवले गेले.  टिपू फ्रेंचांशी "निकट सहकार्यात" होता, ज्यांचा ब्रिटनशी युध्द चालू होता आणि ते अजूनही दक्षिण भारतात हजर होते आणि टीपूच्या दरबारात भेट दिलेल्या काही फ्रेंच कारागीरांनी वाघाच्या अंतर्गत कार्यात हातभार लावला होता.
  टिपू सुलतानचे वडील हैदर अली असताना पोर्टो नोव्हो (परांगीपेटताई) येथे बॅटल ऑफ पोर्टो नोव्हो येथे सर अय्यर कोटे यांच्या विजयात विभाजन चालविणाऱ्या जनरल सर हेक्टर मुनरो यांचा मुलगा ह्यू मुनरो याच्या १७८१ मध्ये झालेल्या मृत्यूमुळे याची प्रेरणा मिळाली असावी.  दुसऱ्या एंग्लो-म्हैसूर युद्धाच्या वेळी 10,000 सैन्याच्या पराभवामुळे पराभूत झाले.  २२ डिसेंबर १७९२ रोजी बंगालच्या उपसागराच्या सॉगर बेटावर बंगालच्या वाघाच्या (अजूनही बंगालच्या वाघाच्या शेवटच्या शरणांपैकी एक) शरणार्थी असताना अनेक साथीदारांसोबत शिकार करीत असताना २२ डिसेंबर १७९२ रोजी ह्यु मुनरो या नागरीक नागरिकावर वाघाने हल्ला केला आणि त्याला ठार मारले.

वर्णन[संपादन]

View of the heads

७१.२ सेमी उंच आणि १७२ सेमी लांबीच्या ऑब्जेक्टच्या एकूण परिमाणांसह, तो माणूस कमीतकमी आयुष्याच्या आकाराच्या जवळ असतो. दोन्ही आकृती बनवलेल्या पेंट केलेल्या लाकडी कवचामुळे कदाचित हिंदू धार्मिक शिल्पेच्या दक्षिण भारतीय परंपरा ओढल्या जातील. हे साधारणत: अर्धा इंच जाड आहे आणि दुसर्‍या महायुद्धात बॉम्बच्या नुकसानीमुळे झालेल्या नुकसानीवर आता बरेचसे मजबुतीकरण झाले आहे. डोकेच्या शेवटी पुष्कळ उघड्या आहेत, पेंट केलेल्या वाघाच्या पट्ट्यांच्या आतील भागाच्या पॅटर्नशी जुळण्यासाठी तयार केल्या आहेत, ज्यामुळे पाईपमधून आवाज अधिक ऐकू येऊ शकतात आणि वाघ "स्पष्टपणे नर" आहे. वाघांच्या शरीराच्या वरच्या भागाला चार स्क्रू काढून यांत्रिकी तपासणी करण्यासाठी उचलले जाऊ शकते. मानवी आकृतीचे बांधकाम समान आहे परंतु लाकूड जास्त दाट आहे. व्हीएंडएच्या संरक्षण विभागाच्या तपासणी आणि विश्लेषणाने हे निश्चित केले आहे की सध्याच्या पेंटचा बराचसा भाग पुनर्संचयित झाला आहे किंवा ओव्हरपेन्ट झाला आहे.

मानवी आकृती स्पष्टपणे युरोपियन पोशाखात आहे, परंतु ते सैनिक किंवा सिव्हिलियनचे प्रतिनिधित्व करतात की नाही याबद्दल अधिकारी भिन्न आहेत;  व्ही आणि ए वेबसाइटवरील वर्तमान मजकूर निर्दिष्ट करणे टाळते, या आकृतीचे वर्णन "युरोपीयन" म्हणून करण्याशिवाय.
क्रॅंक हॅंडलच्या ऑपरेशनमुळे टीपूच्या टायगरमध्ये अनेक भिन्न यंत्रणा सामर्थ्यवान ठरतात.  धनुष्याच्या संचाने माणसाच्या घशाच्या आत पाईपद्वारे हवा बाहेर टाकली, ज्याच्या तोंडात ती उघडली गेली.  यामुळे पीडित व्यक्तीच्या दु: खाच्या रडण्यांचे ऐकणे, एक विलाप आवाज तयार करते.  यांत्रिक दुव्यामुळे माणसाचा डावा हात उंचावतो आणि पडतो.  ही क्रिया 'वेल पाईप' चे खेळपट्टी बदलवते.  वाघाच्या डोक्यात असलेली आणखी एक यंत्रणा दोन टोनसह एकाच पाईपद्वारे हवा बाहेर टाकते.  हे वाघाच्या आवाजाची नक्कल करणारा "नियमित त्रासदायक आवाज" तयार करतो.  वाघाच्या आतील भागात असलेल्या फ्लॅपच्या मागे लपविलेले वाघच्या शरीरातील दोन-स्टॉप पाईप अवयवाचे लहान हस्तिदंत कीबोर्ड आहे, ज्यामुळे सूर वाजविला ​​जाऊ शकतो.
दोन्ही शेल आणि वर्किंगची शैली आणि अवयवाच्या मूळ पितळ पाईप्सच्या धातूच्या सामग्रीचे विश्लेषण (बरेचजण बदलले गेले आहेत) हे दर्शविते की वाघ स्थानिक उत्पादनात होता.  टिपूच्या दरबारात फ्रेंच कारागीर आणि फ्रेंच सैन्य अभियंता यांच्या उपस्थितीमुळे बर्‍याच इतिहासकारांना या ऑटोमॅटॉनच्या यंत्रणेत फ्रेंच इनपुट असल्याचे सूचित करण्यास प्रवृत्त केले

इतिहास[संपादन]

The first ever published illustration of Tipu's Tiger in James Salmond's book of 1800

Tipu's Tiger was part of the extensive plunder from Tipu's palace captured in the fall of Seringapatam, in which Tipu died, on the 4 May 1799, at the culmination of the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War. An aide-de-camp to the Governor General of the East India Company, Richard Wellesley, 1st Marquess Wellesley, wrote a memorandum describing the discovery of the object:[१][२]

"In a room appropriated for musical instruments was found an article which merits particular notice, as another proof of the deep hate, and extreme loathing of Tippoo Saib towards the English. This piece of mechanism represents a royal Tyger in the act of devouring a prostrate European. There are some barrels in imitation of an Organ, within the body of the Tyger. The sounds produced by the Organ are intended to resemble the cries of a person in distress intermixed with the roar of a Tyger. The machinery is so contrived that while the Organ is playing, the hand of the European is often lifted up, to express his helpless and deplorable condition. The whole of this design was executed by Order of Tippoo Sultaun. It is imagined that this memorial of the arrogance and barbarous cruelty of Tippoo Sultan may be thought deserving of a place in the Tower of London."


The earliest published drawing of Tippoo's Tyger was the frontispiece for the book "A Review of the Origin, Progress and Result, of the Late Decisive War in Mysore with Notes" by James Salmond, published in London in 1800. It preceded the move of the exhibit from India to England and had a separate preface शीर्षकd "Description of the Frontispiece" which said:[३]

"This drawing is taken from a piece of mechanism representing a royal tyger in the act of devouring a prostrate European. There are some barrels in imitation of an organ within the body of the tyger, and a row of keys of natural notes. The sounds produced by the organ are intended to resemble the cries of a person in distress, intermixed with the roar of a tyger. The machinery is so contrived, that while the organ is playing, the hand of the European is often lifted up to express his helpless and deplorable condition.

The whole of this design is as large as life, and was executed by order of Tippoo Sultaun, who frequently amused himself with a sight of this emblematic triumph of the Khoodadaud, over the English, Sircar. The piece of machinery was found in a room of the palace at Seringapatam appropriated for the reception of musical instruments, and hence called the Rag Mehal.

The original wooden figure from which the drawing is taken will be forwarded, by the ships of this season, to the Chairman of the Court of Directors, to be presented to his Majesty. It is imagined that this characteristic emblem of the ferocious animosity of Tippoo Sultaun against the British Nation may not be thought undeserving of a place in the Tower of London."


Unlike Tipu's throne, which also featured a large tiger, and many other treasures in the palace, the materials of Tipu's Tiger had no intrinsic value, which together with its striking iconography is what preserved it and brought it back to England essentially intact. The Governors of the East India Company had at first intended to present the Tiger to the Crown, with a view to it being displayed in the Tower of London, but then decided but to keep it for the Company. After some time in store, during which period the first of many "misguided and wholly unjustified endeavours at "improving" the piece" from a musical point of view may have taken place, it was displayed in the reading-room of the East India Company Museum and Library at East India House in Leadenhall Street, London from July 1808.[४]

It rapidly became a very popular exhibit, and the crank-handle controlling the wailing and grunting could apparently be freely turned by the public. The French author Gustave Flaubert visited London in 1851 to see the Great Exhibition, writes Julian Barnes, but finding nothing of interest in the Crystal Palace, visited the East India Company Museum where he was greatly enamoured by Tipu's Tiger.[५] By 1843 it was reported that "The machine or organ ... is getting much out of repair, and does not altogether realize the expectation of the visitor".[६] Eventually the crank-handle disappeared, to the great relief of students using the reading-room in which the tiger was displayed, and The Athenaeum later reported that

"These shrieks and growls were the constant plague of the student busy at work in the Library of the old India House, when the Leadenhall Street public, unremittingly, it appears, were bent on keeping up the performances of this barbarous machine. Luckily, a kind fate has deprived him of his handle, and stopped up, we are happy to think, some of his internal organs... and we do sincerely hope he will remain so, to be seen and admired, if necessary, but to be heard no more".[७]
Engraving of the East India Company Museum in Leadenhall Street. Tipu's Tiger can be seen to the left.

When the East India Company was taken over by the Crown in 1858, the tiger was stored in Fife House, Whitehall until 1868, when it moved down the road to the new India Office, which occupied part of the building still used by today's Foreign and Commonwealth Office. In 1874 it was moved to the India Museum in South Kensington, which was in 1879 dissolved, with the collection distributed between other museums; the V&A records the tiger as acquired in 1880. During World War II the tiger was badly damaged by a German bomb which brought down the roof above it, breaking the wooden casing into several hundred pieces, which were carefully pieced together after the war, so that by 1947 it was back on display. In 1955 it was exhibited in New York at the Museum of Modern Art through the summer and spring.[८][९]

Tipu's Tiger is a notable example of early musical automata from India,[१०] and also for the fact that it was especially constructed for him.[११]

In recent times, Tipu's Tiger has formed an essential part of museum exhibitions exploring the historical interface between Eastern and Western civilisation, colonialism, ethnic histories and other subjects, one such being held at the Victoria and Albert Museum itself in Autumn 2004 शीर्षकd "Encounters:the meeting of Asia and Europe, 1500–1800".[१२] In 1995, 'The Tiger and the Thistle' bi-centennial exhibition was held in Scotland on the topic of "Tipu Sultan and the Scots". The organ was considered too fragile to travel to Scotland for the exhibition. Instead, a full-sized replica made of fibre glass and painted by Derek Freeborn, was exhibited in its place. The replica itself was also associated with a historic Scottish event having been made in 1986 for 'The Enterprising Scot' exhibition, which was held to commemorate the October 1985 merger of the Royal Scottish Museum and the National Museum of Antiquities of Scotland to form a new entity - the National Museums of Scotland.[१३]

Today Tipu's Tiger is arguably the best-known single work in the Victoria and Albert Museum as far as the general public is concerned. It is a "must-see" highlight for school-children's visits to the Victoria and Albert Museum, and functions as an iconic representation of the Museum, replicated in various forms of memorabilia in the Museum shops including postcards, model kits and stuffed toys.[१४][१४] Visitors can no longer operate the mechanism since the device is now kept in a glass case. A small model of this toy is exhibited in Tipu Sultan's wooden palace in Bangalore.[१५] Tipu's Tiger has not been the subject of an official repatriation request, presumably due to the ambiguity underlying Tipu's image in the eyes of Indians;[१६]:181 , although Indian billionaire Vijay Mallya recently purchased Tipu's sword and other items associated with him which have been brought back to India.[१७]

Symbolism[संपादन]

A Seringapatam medal of 1808 showing the British Lion overcoming a prostrate tiger

Tipu Sultan identified himself with tigers; his personal epithet was 'The Tiger of Mysore,' his soldiers were dressed in 'tyger' jackets, his personal symbol invoked a tiger's face through clever use of calligraphy and the tiger motif is visible on his throne, and other objects in his personal possession, including Tipu's Tiger.[१३][१८] Accordingly, as per Joseph Sramek, for Tipu the tiger striking down the European in the organ represented his symbolic triumph over the British.[१९]

The British hunted tigers, not just to emulate the Mughals and other local elites in this "royal" sport, but also as a symbolic defeat of Tipu Sultan and any other ruler who stood in the path of British domination.[१९] The tiger motif was used in the "Seringapatam medal" which was awarded to those who participated in the 1799 campaign, where the British lion was depicted as overcoming a prostrate tiger, the tiger being the dynastic symbol of Tipu's line. The Seringapatam medal was issued in gold for the highest dignitaries who were associated with the campaign as well as select officers on general duty, silver for other dignitaries, field officers and other staff officers, in copper-bronze for the NCOs and in tin for the privates. On the reverse it had a frieze of the storming of the fort while the obverse showed, in the words of a nineteenth century tome on medals, "the BRITISH LION subduing the TIGER, the emblem of the late Tippoo Sultan's government, with the period when it was effected and the following words 'ASSUD OTTA-UL GHAULIB', signifying the Lion of God is the conqueror, or the conquering Lion of God."[२०]

In this manner, the iconography of this automaton was adopted and overturned by the British.[१६]:12, 149 When Tipu's Tiger was displayed in London in the nineteenth century, British viewers of the time "characterised the tiger as a trophy and symbolic justification of British colonial rule".[१६] Tipu's Tiger along with other trophies such as Tipu's sword, the throne of Ranjit Singh, Tantya Tope's kurta and Nana Saheb's betel-box which was made of brass, were all displayed as "memorabilia of the Mutiny".[२१]

The British Lion's Vengeance on the Bengal Tiger, Punch cartoon from 1857

In one interpretation, the display of Tipu's Tiger in South Kensington, served to remind the visitor of the noblesse oblige of the British Empire to bring civilisation to the barbaric lands of which Tipu was king.[२२]

Tipu's Tiger is also notable as a literal image of a tiger killing a British Officer, an important symbol in England at the time, and from about 1820 the "Death of Munro" became one of the scenes in the repertoire of Staffordshire pottery figurines.[२३] Tiger-hunting in the British raj, is also considered to represented not just the political subjugation of India, but in addition, the triumph over India's environment.[१९] The iconography persisted and during the rebellion of 1857, Punch ran a political cartoon showing the Indian rebels as a tiger, attacking a victim in an identical pose to Tipu's Tiger, being defeated by the British forces shown by the larger figure of a lion.

Motives for collection of articles, such as Tipu's Tiger, are seen by Kalter as having a social and cultural context. The collection of Western and Indian art by Tipu Sultan is seen as motivated by the need to display his wealth and legitimise his authority over his subjects who were predominantly Hindu and did not share his religion, viz. Islam. In the case of the East India Company, collection of documents, artefacts and objet's d'art from India helped develop the idea of a subjugated Indian populace in the minds of the British people, the thought being that the possession of such objects of a culture represented understanding of, dominance over and mastery of that culture.[२४]

Whether made for Tippoo himself or for some other Indian potentate a century and a half earlier, it is difficult to convey a more lively impression of the mingled ferocity and childish want of taste so characteristic of the majority of Asian princes than will be communicated at once by this truly barbarous piece of music.

संगीत वाद्य[संपादन]

Side view, showing how the handle when turned gets in the way of the player of the keyboard

In a detailed study published in 1987 of the tiger's musical and noise-making functions, Arthur W.J.G. Ord-Hume concluded that since coming to Britain, "the instrument has been ruthlessly reworked, and in doing so much of its original operating principles have been destroyed".[२६] There are two ranks of pipes in the organ (as opposed to the wailing and grunting functions), each "comprising eighteen notes, [which] are nominally of 4ft pitch and are unisons - i.e. corresponding pipes in each register make sounds of the same musical pitch. This is an unusual layout for a pipe organ although while selecting the two stops together results in more sound ... there is also detectable a slight beat between the the pipes so creating a celeste effect. ... it is considered likely that as so much work has been done ... this characteristic may be more an accident of tuning than an intentional feature".[२७] The tiger's grunt is made by a single pipe in the tiger's head and the man's wail by a single pipe emerging at his mouth and connected to separate bellows located in the man's chest, where they can be accessed by unbolting and lifting off the tiger. The grunt operates by cogs gradually raising the weighted "grunt-pipe" until it reaches a point where it slips down "to fall against its fixed lower-board or reservoir, discharging the air to form the grunting sound"[२८] Today all the sound-making functions rely on the crank-handle to power them, though Ord-Hume believes this was not originally the case.[२९]

Works on the noise-making functions included those made over several decades by the famous organ-building firm Henry Willis & Sons, and Henry Willis III, who worked on the tiger in the 1950s, contributed an account to a monograph by Mildred Archer of the V&A. Ord-Hume is generally ready to exempt Willis work from his scathing comments on other drastic restorations, which "vandalism" is assumed to be by unknown earlier organ-builders.[३०] There was a detailed account of the sound-making functions in The Penny Magazine in 1835, whose anonymous author evidently understood "things mechanical and organs in particular".[३१] From this and Ord-Hume's own investigations, he concluded that the original operation of the man's "wail" had been intermitent, with a wail only being produced after every dozen or so grunts from the tiger above, but that at some date after 1835 the mechanism had been altered to make the wail continuous, and that the bellows for the wail had been replaced with smaller and weaker ones, and the operation of the moving arm altered.[३२]

Puzzling features of the present instrument include the placing of the handle, which when turned is likely to obstruct a player of the keyboard.[३३] Ord-Hume, using the 1835 account, concludes that originally the handle (which is a 19th century British replacement, probably of a French original) only operated the grunt and wail, while the organ was operated by pulling a string or cord to work the original bellows, now replaced.[३४] The keyboard, which is largely original, is "unique in construction", with "square ivory buttons" with round lathe-turned tops instead of conventional keys. Though the mechanical functioning of each button is "practical and convenient" they are spaced such that "it is almost impossible to stretch the hand to play an octave".[३५] The buttons are marked with small black spots, differently placed but forming no apparent pattern in relation to the notes produced and corresponding to no known system of marking keys.[३६] The two stop control knobs for the organ are located, "rather confusingly", a little below the tiger's testicles.[३७] The instrument is now rarely played, but there is a V&A video of a recent performance.[३८]

Derivative works[संपादन]

An illustration of Tipu's Tiger in a late nineteenth-century history book
Rabbit eating astronaut, 2004 sculpture of painted steel, height ३९ इंच (९९ सेंमी) by Bill Reid from Wisconsin USA

Tipu's Tiger has provided inspiration to poets, sculptors, artists and others from the nineteenth century to the present day.[३९] The poet John Keats saw Tipu's Tiger at the museum in Leadenhall Street and worked it into his satirical verse of 1819, The Cap and Bells.[३९] In the poem, a soothsayer visits the court of the Emperor Elfinan. He hears a strange noise and thinks the Emperor is snoring.[४०]

"Replied the page: “that little buzzing noise….
Comes from a play-thing of the Emperor’s choice,
From a Man-Tiger-Organ, prettiest of his toys"

The French poet, Auguste Barbier, described the tiger and its workings and meditated on its meaning in his poem, Le Joujou du Sultan (The Plaything of the Sultan) published in 1837.[४१][४२] More recently, the American Modernist poet, Marianne Moore wrote in her 1986 poem "Tippoo's Tiger" about the workings of the automaton,[४३] though in fact the tail was never movable:

"The infidel claimed Tipu's helmet and cuirasse
and a vast toy - a curious automaton
a man killed by a tiger; with organ pipes inside
from which blood-curdling cries merged with inhuman groans.
The tiger moved its tail as the man moved his arm."

Die Seele (The Souls), a work by painter Jan Balet (1913–2009) shows an angel trumpeting over a flower garden while a tiger devours a uniformed French soldier.[३९] The Indian painter Maqbool Fida Husain painted Tipu's Tiger in his characteristic style in 1986 titling the work as "Tipu Sultan's Tiger".[४४] The sculptor Dhruva Mistry, when a student at the Royal College of Art, adjacent to the Victoria and Albert Museum, frequently passed Tipu's Tiger in its glass case and was inspired to make a fibre-glass and plastic sculpture Tipu in 1986.[३९] The sculpture Rabbit eating Astronaut (2004) by the artist Bill Reid is a humorous homage to the tiger, the rabbit "chomping" when its tail is cranked round.[४५]

हे पहा[संपादन]

संदर्भ[संपादन]

  • Brittlebank, Kate (May, 1995), "Sakti and Barakat: The Power of Tipu's Tiger. An Examination of the Tiger Emblem of Tipu Sultan of Mysore", Modern Asian Studies, Cambridge University Press, 29.2: 257–269, JSTOR 312813 |date= मधील दिनांक मूल्ये तपासा (सहाय्य)
  • De Almeida, Hermione; Gilpin, George H. (2005), Indian Renaissance: British romantic art and the prospect of India, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., ISBN 9780754636816, 2011-07-16 रोजी पाहिले
  • Ord-Hume, Arthur (February 1987 - Part I, September 1987 - Part II), "Tipu's Tiger - its History and Description", Music and Automata, 3.9, 3.10 |date= मधील दिनांक मूल्ये तपासा (सहाय्य)
  • Stronge, Susan (2009), Tipu's Tigers, V&A Publishing, ISBN 1851775757

Videos of the tiger in performance[संपादन]

बाह्य दुवे[संपादन]

संदर्भ आणि नोंदी[संपादन]

  1. ^ The St James's Chronicle, April 1800; also reported in the Edinburgh Caledonian Mercury 24 April 1800.
  2. ^ Stronge 2009, p. 62
  3. ^ As quoted in Wood, Col Mark (2000). "2.4 Tippoo's Tiger: Frontispiece". The Tiger and the Thistle - Tipu Sultan and the Scots in India. The National Galleries of Scotland. 18 July 2011 रोजी पाहिले.
  4. ^ Ord-Hume, Part 1, 29-31; Davis, 153-157
  5. ^ Pritchett, Prof Frances W. (2000). "Symbols". Tipu Sultan of Mysore (r. 1782-99). Columbia University. 18 July 2011 रोजी पाहिले.
  6. ^ Ord-Hume, Part 2, 79
  7. ^ Ord-Hume, Part 2, 79, quoting The Athenaeum, June 5, 1869, p. 766
  8. ^ Ord-Hume, Part 1, 31
  9. ^ Mann, Phyllis G. "News and Notes". Keats-Shelley Journal, Vol 6. (WĂinter 1957) pg 9. Keats-Shelley Association of America Inc. 20 July 2011 रोजी पाहिले.
  10. ^ Angelika (21 November 2009). "Part 13. The First Portable Music Player – The Most Popular Automatic Music Instrument in the World". The Race Music. theracemusic.net. 19 July 2011 रोजी पाहिले.
  11. ^ चुका उधृत करा: <ref> चुकीचा कोड; V&A web नावाने दिलेल्या संदर्भांमध्ये काहीही माहिती नाही
  12. ^ Jaffer, Amin (2007). "Histories from the Sea: Use of Images, Video and Audio Materials as Tools for Understanding and Teaching South Asia-Europe Maritime History". In Gomes, Francisco José (ed.). Histories from the Sea - Proceedings of International Conference 30–31 January 2007 (pdf). Alexandra Curvelo, Clare Anderson , Bhaswati Bhattacharya , Kévin Le Doudic , Momin Chaudhury , Samuel Berthet , Bhagwan S. Josh & K. Madavane. New Delhi: Centre for French and Francophone Studies, School of Language, Literature and Culture Studies, Jawarharlal Nehru University. pp. 27–35. 20 July 2011 रोजी पाहिले. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (सहाय्य); line feed character in |others= at position 96 (सहाय्य)
  13. a b Unattributed (2000). "1.1 Tippoo's Tiger". The Tiger and the Thistle - Tipu Sultan and the Scots in India. The National Galleries of Scotland. 18 July 2011 रोजी पाहिले. चुका उधृत करा: अवैध <ref> tag; नाव "Tiger&Thistle11" वेगवेगळ्या मजकूराशी अनेकदा जोडलेले आहे
  14. a b Kromm, Jane; Bakewell, Susan Benforado (2 February 2010). A history of visual culture: Western civilization from the 18th to the 21st century. Berg. p. 272. ISBN 9781845204921. 17 July 2011 रोजी पाहिले.
  15. ^ ECity Bangalore (2011). "Tipu Sultan's Fort and Palace". 2011-07-16 रोजी पाहिले.
  16. a b c Davis, Richard H. (1999). Lives of Indian Images. American Council of Learned Societies. Princeton University Press. pp. 150–157, 178–185. ISBN 9780691005201. 2011-07-16 रोजी पाहिले.
  17. ^ Singh, Kishore (10 Dec 2009). "In search of Tipu's wealth". Business Standard. 19 July 2011 रोजी पाहिले.
  18. ^ Walsh, Robin (1999). "Images - Tiger Motif". Seringapatam 1799: letters and journals of Lachlan Macquarie in India. McQuarrie University. 19 July 2011 रोजी पाहिले.
  19. a b c Sramek, Joseph (Summer 2006). ""Face Him Like a Briton": Tiger Hunting, Imperialism, and British Masculinity in Colonial India, 1800-1875". Victorian Studies. 48 (4): 659–680. doi:10.1353/vic.2007.0035. ISSN 0042-5222. |access-date= requires |url= (सहाय्य)
  20. ^ Carter, Thomas (1893). War medals of the British army, and how they were won (War medals of the British army, and how they were won. ed.). London: Norie and Wilson. 19 July 2011 रोजी पाहिले.
  21. ^ Neela (1 January 1999). "Displaying histories - Museums and the Politics of Culture". In Dossal, Mariam (ed.). State intervention and popular response: western India in the nineteenth century. Maloni, Ruby. Popular Prakashan. p. 80. ISBN 9788171548552. 20 July 2011 रोजी पाहिले. Unknown parameter |chapterदुवा= ignored (सहाय्य)
  22. ^ Yallop, Jacqueline (1 April 2010). Magpies, Squirrels and Thieves: How the Victorians Collected the World. Atlantic Books, Limited. p. 338. ISBN 9781843547501. 20 July 2011 रोजी पाहिले.
  23. ^ Ord-Hume, Part 1, 26; de Almeida, 38
  24. ^ Kalter, Barrett (2008). "Review essay: "Shopping, Collecting, and Feeling at Home"". Eighteenth-Century Fiction. McMaster University. 20 (3, Article 11). 20 July 2011 रोजी पाहिले.
  25. ^ Knight, Charles; Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge (Great Britain) (1834). The penny magazine of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. Charles Knight. p. 320. 20 July 2011 रोजी पाहिले.
  26. ^ Ord-Hume, Part 1, 31, though his main discussion of the matter is in his Part 2.
  27. ^ Ord-Hume, Part 2, 69
  28. ^ Ord-Hume, Part 2, 64-66, with photos 67-68, quote p. 68
  29. ^ Ord-Hume, Part 2, 66
  30. ^ Ord-Hume, Part 1, 30, and Part 2 passim
  31. ^ Ord-Hume, Part 2, 75, preceding his full reproduction of the text.
  32. ^ Ord-Hume, Part 2, 66; video of David Dimbleby playing the grunt and wail only
  33. ^ Ord-Hume, Part 1, 21
  34. ^ Ord-Hume, Part 2, 71, 73, 75, 77, and see videos linked at the end of the section
  35. ^ Ord-Hume, Part 2, 69, 73, and see videos linked at the end of the section
  36. ^ Ord-Hume, Part 2, 69, and see videos linked at the end of the section
  37. ^ Ord-Hume, Part 2, 64
  38. ^ Vimeo.com Conservation in Action - Playing Tippoo's Tiger Part 2, and Part 1, with the top of the tiger removed, accessed 17 July 2011
  39. a b c d Unattributed (2000). "3.43 Tiger Buckle". The Tiger and the Thistle - Tipu Sultan and the Scotts in India. The National Galleries of Scotland. 18 July 2011 रोजी पाहिले.
  40. ^ Radcliffe, David A. "The Cap and Bells; or, the Jealousies, a Faery Tale. Unfinished. - John Keats". English Poetry 1579-1830: Spenser And The Tradition. Department of English, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia, USA. 18 July 2011 रोजी पाहिले. External link in |work= (सहाय्य). Dead website, retrieved through The Wayback Machine
  41. ^ Unattributed (2000). "2.5 Tippoo's Tiger: On Show, Leadenhall St Museum". The Tiger and the Thistle - Tipu Sultan and the Scotts in India. The National Galleries of Scotland. 18 July 2011 रोजी पाहिले.
  42. ^ Text of Le Joujou du Sultan, from Auguste Barbier, Iambes et poèmes, published E. Dentu, 1868.
  43. ^ Vincent, John (2002). "The Magician's Advance : Late Moore". Queer lyrics: difficulty and closure in American poetry. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 111. ISBN 9780312294977. 20 July 2011 रोजी पाहिले.
  44. ^ Unattributed (15 June 2010). "Lot 46 HUSAIN Maqbool Fida, *1915 (India)". Art, Luxe and Collection. artvalue.com. 19 July 2011 रोजी पाहिले.
  45. ^ Illustrated Stronge, p.89; beebomb.com here