सहाय्य:Setup For Devanagari/Linux

विकिपीडिया, मुक्‍त ज्ञानकोशातून

GNU/Linux General Description[संपादन]

On most of the distributions, the basic set of utilities and environment is similar (though not exactly same). Hence if you don't find the distribution of your interest listed here (or if present and distribution details are missing) then try tips from general section of linux. C-DAC (former NCST) has involvment in Devanagari support for Linux/UNIX operating system. Following document should be useful to many users. NCST Devanagari-HOWTO

GNU/Linux Display[संपादन]

Please refer to this section for details.

GNU/Linux Input[संपादन]



Debian Linux[संपादन]

   $ apt-get install ttf-indic-fonts


Fedora Core Linux[संपादन]

Fedora Core 3 comes with GNOME 2.8 and KDE 3.3 releases. Similarly from following table, please locate GNOME and KDE sections to refer.

Fedora Core Release GNOME Release KDE Release
Core 4 GNOME 2.10.x KDE 3.4.x
Core 3 GNOME 2.8.x KDE 3.3.x
Core 2 GNOME 2.6.x KDE 3.2.x
Core 1 GNOME 2.4.x KDE 3.1.x


Red Hat Linux[संपादन]

Red Hat GNOME Release KDE Release
Red Hat Linux 9.0  ??  ??
Red Hat Linux 8.0  ??  ??
Red Hat Linux 7.x  ??  ??


Novell SuSE Linux[संपादन]



Ubuntu Linux[संपादन]

Debian based Linux distro that uses GNOME as desktop.

There is another distro called Kubuntu that is same like above but using KDE as desktop.



Knoppix[संपादन]



GNOME[संपादन]

GNU Network Object Model Environment=>GNOME
(Version) 2.8.x - 2.6.x - 2.4.x

General Description[संपादन]

Display[संपादन]

Pango is used by GNOME and related applications, as default font renderer. According to Indian Script Input System(ISIS), Pango is the best renderer for Linux system. However, to display Devanagari scripts, Pango requires Devanagari fonts, installed in the system. Please refer this section about how to install fonts in X11.

Input[संपादन]

This section provides general description about Input Methods and Keyboard Layouts and which to select. Based on this knowledge, one can select keyboard layout. However, Phonetic-layout is recommended for general users.

GNOME Phonetic-based keyboard Layouts[संपादन]

Because Phonetic-based keyboard Layouts are intuitive, it is recommended for general users.


a. Indian Script Input System (ISIS) It can be downloaded from Indian Script Input System Home Page.

GNOME 2.8.x[संपादन]

Phonetic-based Keyboard Layout[संपादन]

Please refer to this section (Recommended)

Inscript Keyboard Layout[संपादन]

To enable support, following two steps are required:

1. To enable add Keyboard Indicator Applet to panel
1. Right click on panel
2. Choose Add to Panel...
3. Choose Keyboard Indicator
4. Click Add
चित्र:FC3-GNOME-Keyboard Indicator Panel Applet.png
Choosing Keyboard Layout Indicator Panel Applet in GNOME 2.8 running on Fedora Core 3
2. To add Hindi keyboard layout using Keyboard Indicator Applet
1. Right click on Keyboard Indicator
2. Choose Open Keyboard Preferences
3. Choose Layout tab
4. Select Hindi in Available Layouts list
5. Click Add
चित्र:FC3-GNOME-Keyboard Preferences-Layout.png
Choosing Hindi Keyboard Layout GNOME 2.8 on Fedora Core 3

As of now, explicit 'Marathi' keyboard layout is not available, or generic Devanagari layout may be termed as 'Hindi'. But it serves purpose of generic Inscript layout for Devanagari .

GNOME 2.6.x[संपादन]

Phonetic-based Keyboard Layout[संपादन]

Please refer to this section (Recommended)

Inscript-based Keyboard Layout[संपादन]

To enable support, following two steps are required:

1. To enable add Keyboard Indicator Applet to panel
1. Right click on panel
2. Choose Add to Panel
3. Select Utility
4. Choose Keyboard Indicator
चित्र:FC2-GNOME-Keyboard Indicator Panel Applet.png
Choosing Keyboard Layout Indicator Panel Applet in GNOME 2.6 running on Fedora Core 2
2. To add Hindi keyboard layout using Keyboard Indicator Applet
1. Right click on Keyboard Indicator
2. Choose Open Keyboard Preferences
3. Choose Layout tab
4. Select Hindi in Available Layouts list
5. Click Add
चित्र:FC2-GNOME-Keyboard Preferences-Layout.png
Choosing Hindi Keyboard Layout GNOME 2.6 on Fedora Core 2

As of now, explicit 'Marathi' keyboard layout is not available, or generic Devanagari layout may be termed as 'Hindi'. But it serves purpose of generic Inscript layout for Devanagari .

GNOME 2.4.x[संपादन]

Phonetic-based Keyboard Layout[संपादन]

Please refer to this section (Recommended)

Inscript-based Keyboard Layout[संपादन]

To enable support, following two steps are required:

1. To enable add Keyboard Switcher Applet to panel
1. Right click on panel
2. Choose Add to Panel
3. Select Utility
4. Choose Keyboard Layout Switcher
चित्र:FC1-GNOME-Keyboard Indicator Panel Applet.png
Choosing Keyboard Layout Indicator Panel Applet in GNOME 2.4 running on Fedora Core 1
2. To add Hindi keyboard layout using Keyboard Switcher

Red Hat Linux[संपादन]

Red Hat GNOME Release KDE Release
Red Hat Linux 9.0  ??  ??
Red Hat Linux 8.0  ??  ??
Red Hat Linux 7.x  ??  ??




Novell SuSE Linux[संपादन]



Ubuntu Linux[संपादन]

Debian based Linux distro that uses GNOME as desktop.

There is another distro called Kubuntu that is same like above but using KDE as desktop.



Knoppix[संपादन]



GNOME[संपादन]

GNU Network Object Model Environment=>GNOME
(Version) 2.8.x - 2.6.x - 2.4.x

General Description[संपादन]

Display[संपादन]

Pango is used by GNOME and related applications, as default font renderer. According to Indian Script Input System(ISIS), Pango is the best renderer for Linux system. However, to display Devanagari scripts, Pango requires Devanagari fonts, installed in the system. Please refer this section about how to install fonts in X11.

Input[संपादन]

This section provides general description about Input Methods and Keyboard Layouts and which to select. Based on this knowledge, one can select keyboard layout. However, Phonetic-layout is recommended for general users.

GNOME Phonetic-based keyboard Layouts[संपादन]

Because Phonetic-based keyboard Layouts are intuitive, it is recommended for general users.


a. Indian Script Input System (ISIS) It can be downloaded from Indian Script Input System Home Page.

Inscript keyboard Layout[संपादन]

Inscript comes with almost every distribution of Linux with GNOME. However one needs to know which version of GNOME a user is running on his/her system, to enable this support. Following major releases of GNOME are discussed here. Please refer to respective release.

GNOME 2.8.x[संपादन]

Phonetic-based Keyboard Layout[संपादन]

Please refer to this section (Recommended)

Inscript Keyboard Layout[संपादन]

To enable support, following two steps are required:

1. To enable add Keyboard Indicator Applet to panel
1. Right click on panel
2. Choose Add to Panel...
3. Choose Keyboard Indicator
4. Click Add
चित्र:FC3-GNOME-Keyboard Indicator Panel Applet.png
Choosing Keyboard Layout Indicator Panel Applet in GNOME 2.8 running on Fedora Core 3
2. To add Hindi keyboard layout using Keyboard Indicator Applet
1. Right click on Keyboard Indicator
2. Choose Open Keyboard Preferences
3. Choose Layout tab
4. Select Hindi in Available Layouts list
5. Click Add
चित्र:FC3-GNOME-Keyboard Preferences-Layout.png
Choosing Hindi Keyboard Layout GNOME 2.8 on Fedora Core 3

As of now, explicit 'Marathi' keyboard layout is not available, or generic Devanagari layout may be termed as 'Hindi'. But it serves purpose of generic Inscript layout for Devanagari .

GNOME 2.6.x[संपादन]

Phonetic-based Keyboard Layout[संपादन]

Please refer to this section (Recommended)

Inscript-based Keyboard Layout[संपादन]

To enable support, following two steps are required:

1. To enable add Keyboard Indicator Applet to panel
1. Right click on panel
2. Choose Add to Panel
3. Select Utility
4. Choose Keyboard Indicator
चित्र:FC2-GNOME-Keyboard Indicator Panel Applet.png
Choosing Keyboard Layout Indicator Panel Applet in GNOME 2.6 running on Fedora Core 2
2. To add Hindi keyboard layout using Keyboard Indicator Applet
1. Right click on Keyboard Indicator
2. Choose Open Keyboard Preferences
3. Choose Layout tab
4. Select Hindi in Available Layouts list
5. Click Add ||
चित्र:FC2-GNOME-Keyboard Preferences-Layout.png
Choosing Hindi Keyboard Layout GNOME 2.6 on Fedora Core 2

As of now, explicit 'Marathi' keyboard layout is not available, or generic Devanagari layout may be termed as 'Hindi'. But it serves purpose of generic Inscript layout for Devanagari .


GNOME 2.4.x[संपादन]

Phonetic-based Keyboard Layout[संपादन]

Please refer to this section (Recommended)

Inscript-based Keyboard Layout[संपादन]

To enable support, following two steps are required:

1. To enable add Keyboard Switcher Applet to panel
1. Right click on panel
2. Choose Add to Panel
3. Select Utility
4. Choose Keyboard Layout Switcher
चित्र:FC1-GNOME-Keyboard Indicator Panel Applet.png
Choosing Keyboard Layout Indicator Panel Applet in GNOME 2.4 running on Fedora Core 1
2. To add Hindi keyboard layout using Keyboard Switcher

Firefox Indic languages support[संपादन]

  1. Make sure hindi fonts are installed
    1. On Fedora/Redhat systems you can do following
    2. Command to verify: `rpm -q fonts-hindi`
    3. Command to install: `yum install fonts-hindi`
  2. Go the greasemonkey site : http://greasemonkey.mozdev.org/
  3. Install GreaseMonkey Firefox extension ( probably you will have to allow pop ups for this site.)
    1. Just click on "Install Greasemonkey" hyperlink and procced as it guides you.
  4. Close firefox. Start firefox again.
  5. GO to this site : http://userscripts.org/scripts/show/1480
  6. On the Right Hand Corner click "Install this Script" which will install a ".js" file .(The greasemonkey extension will take care of the .js install)

UNIX-like Operating Systems[संपादन]

See below.

X11[संपादन]

(Applicable across all UNIX/Linux systems)

This section describes procedure to install fonts on any X11R5/6/7 based system. Nowdays almost all of the UNIX/Linux systems are eligible for this category because they run the latest X11R6 implementations.

X Display[संपादन]

First download Devanagari available from Yudit site, Raghu Font. Now a series of commands needs to be typed in a terminal window or command shell. Only administrator ('root' or user with equivalent power) can issue following commands successfully. Also, you can copy these commands to a new file and execute it from command promt.
 $ cp raghu.ttf /usr/share/fonts
 $ cd /usr/share/fonts
 $ fc-cache -fv
 $ ttmkfdir > fonts.scale 
 $ mkfontdir
Alternatively one can use following set of commands.
 $ ( [ -d /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/TrueType ] \
   && cp raghu.ttf /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/TrueType) \
   || ( [ -d /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/TTF ] \
   && cp raghu.ttf /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/TTF)\
   || echo "Neither directory is found, font is not installed"
 $ mkfontdir
 $ xset fp rehash