"निजामशाही" च्या विविध आवृत्यांमधील फरक

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२,१८३ बाइट्स वगळले ,  १२ वर्षांपूर्वी
बदलांचा आढावा नाही
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[[चित्र:Ahmednagar fort 2.jpg|thumb|right|300px|अहमदनगर भुईकोटाचे शाईत चितारलेले रेखाचित्र (इ.स. १८८५)]]
'''निजामशहा''' हे [[भारत|भारता]]तील [[अहमदनगर]] व [[हैदराबाद]]च्या भूतपूर्व राज्यकर्त्यांचा खिताब होता.
'''अहमदनगराची निजामशाही''' ही मध्ययुगात [[दक्षिण आशिया|दक्षिण आशियातील]] [[दख्खन|दख्खन प्रदेशात]] अस्तित्वात असलेली सल्तनत होती. २८ मे, इ.स. १४९० रोजी मलिक अहमद या [[जुन्नर]] येथील बहमनी सेनापतीने उर्वरित बहमनी सैन्याचा पराभव करून जुन्नर येथे स्वतंत्र सल्तनतीची घोषणा केली.
 
==स्थापना==
[[इ.स. १४८६]] लासाली [[निजाम-उल-मुल्क]] ह्या [[बहमनी]] सुलतानाच्या सरदाराची बिदरच्याबिदररातील दरबारी हत्या झाली. ह्या प्रकारामुळे चीडलेल्याचिडलेल्या त्याच्या मुलाने - अहमदनेअहमदाने - बहमनी सल्तनतेपासूनसल्तनतीपासून फुटून स्वतंत्र राज्याची घोषणा केली आणि [[जुन्नर]] हे आपल्या राजधानीचे शहर निश्चीतनिश्चित केले.
 
मे [[२८ मे]], [[इ.स. १४९०]] रोजी अहमद निजाम-उल-मुल्काने बाग ह्या ठिकाणी झालेल्या युद्धात बहमनी सैन्याविरुद्ध संपूर्ण विजय मिळवला. त्याने आपल्या राज्याची राजधानी ह्या नव्या ठिकाणी हलवली आणि शहराचे [[अहमदनगर]] असे नामांतर केले.
 
पुढील जवळपास १४० वर्षे त्याच्या वारसांनी अहमदनगर येथून राज्य केले. [[चांद बिबी]] ह्या हुसेन निजामाच्या मुलीने आणि अली आदिलशहाच्याआदिलशाहाच्या पत्नीने १६ व्या शतकाच्या शेवटी मुघलांनी केलेल्या आक्रमणात अहमदनगरचाअहमदनगराचा किल्ला लढवत ठेवला होता. [[मलिक अंबर]] हा कर्तृत्ववान प्रधान दुसऱ्या मूर्तझा निजामाच्या सेवेत होता.
 
==घराणे==
या सल्तनतीच्या अधिकारारूढ सुलतानांना '''निजामशाह''' या किताबाने उल्लेखले जाई.
{| class="wikitable"
|-
! नाव !! अधिकारकार्यकाळ काल(इ.स.)
|-
| अहमद निजामशहानिजामशाह || १४९० - १५०८
|-
| बुऱ्हाण निजामशहानिजामशाह || १५०८ - १५५३
|-
| हुसेन निजामशहानिजामशाह || १५५३ - १५६५
|-
| मूर्तझा निजामशहानिजामशाह || १५६५ - १५८८
|-
| मिरनमिरान हुसेन || १५८८ - १५८८
|-
| इस्माईलइस्माइल निजामशहानिजामशाह || १५८८ - १५९०
|-
| दुसरा बुऱ्हाण निजामशहा दुसरानिजामशाह || १५९० - १५९५
|-
| इब्राहिम निजामशहानिजामशाह || १५९५ - १५९६
|-
| दुसरा अहमद निजामशहानिजामशाह दुसरा|| १५९६ - १५९६
|-
| बहादुर निजामशहानिजामशाह || १५९६ - १६०५
|-
| दुसरा मूर्तझा निजामशहा दुसरानिजामशाह || १६०५ - १६३१
|}
 
==राज्य-व्यवस्था==
Under the [[Ahmednagar]] kings the country was divided into districts or sarkars. The district or sarkar was further subdivided into sub-divisions known as pargana, karyat, sammat, mahal and taluka and sometimes by their Hindu names, of prant and des. Except in the hilly west the officers were all Muslims. The farmers generally collected the revenue, the farms sometimes including only one village. The farmers were under a government agent or amil who in addition to his revenue duties managed the police and settled civil suits. There was a considerable number of Hindus in the employ of the State. Generally the hill forts except those of strategic importance were garrisoned by Marathas, Kolis and Dhangars and instances of open country being left to the management of Maratha and Brahmin officers were not infrequent. Estates were granted on military tenure, the value of the grant being in proportion to the number of troops which the grant holder maintained. Among the Maratha chiefs under Ahmadnagar could be mentioned Lakhuji jadhav Rav, Maloji Bhosle and many others of lesser note.
Malik Ambar reformed the land administration of the kingdom and is best known by his excellent land system. He stopped land farming and under Musalman supervision entrusted the collection of revenue to Brahmin agents. He renewed the broken village system and when experiments enabled him to ascertain the average yield of a field, he fixed the land revenue at two fifths of the outturn in kind and later commuted the grain payment to a cash payment representing about one-third of the yield. The arrangement of Malik Ambar was not in the nature of a permanent settlement but variable according to the conditions of the harvest.
When the Moghals took over the Ahmadnagar territory, sah Tahan introduced the revenue system of Akbar's great financier Todar Mal, under which lands were first assessed according to their fertility in a proportion varying from one-half to one seventh of the gross produce according to the cost of tillage and the kind of crop grown. The government share was then commuted for a money payment and at the time when the land was measured, classed and registered, the assessment was fixed at a fourth of the yearly produce of each field. The system was introduced in the districts north of the Bhima and Mursid Kuli Khan was appointed to work out the system. The system introduced a settlement which was more or less permanent in comparison to Malik Ambar's flexible settlement. The Moghals also introduced the Fasli or the harvest year which coincided with the mrga or opening of the south-west monsoon early in June. No attempt was made to reconcile the Fasli or Solar Musa1man year with their Lunar year and hence the Fasli differed from the regular Lunar Musalman year more than three years in a century. The classification of lands, and the land revenue settlement proved distasteful to the rayats of Ahmadnagar kingdom. [http://www.maharashtra.gov.in/english/gazetteer/Nanded/his1.html]
 
 
[[Categoryवर्ग:महाराष्ट्राचा इतिहास]]
[[Categoryवर्ग:भारतीय इतिहास]]
[[Category:भाषांतर]]
[[en:Ahmadnagar Sultanate]]
[[वर्ग: निजामशाही]]
 
[[en:Ahmadnagar Sultanate]]
२३,४६०

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