वर्ग चर्चा:मराठी व्याकरण

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विकिपीडिया, मुक्‍त ज्ञानकोशातून

Temp Marathi grammar is somewhat like that of other Indo-Aryan languages such as Hindi and Sanskrit. An unusual feature of Marathi, as compared to other Indo-European languages, is that it displays the inclusive and exclusive we feature, that is common to the Dravidian languages.

[edit] Gender Unlike its related languages, Marathi preserves all three grammatical genders (Linga) from Sanskrit.

Pullinga (masculine) पुल्लिंग Strilinga (feminine) स्त्रिलिंग Napumsaklinga (neuter) नपुंसकलिंग Masculine proper nouns usually end in the short vowels a or u while feminine proper nouns tend to end with the long vowels aa, ii or uu.

[edit] Voices There are three grammatical voices (Prayog) in Marathi.

Kartarii prayog refers to a sentence construction in which the verb changes according to the subject, which is comparable to the active voice in English. Raam mhanato "Raam says", Raam aambaa khaato "Raam eats a mango" Karmanii prayog refers to a sentence construction in which the verb changes according to the object, which is like the passive voice in English. Raamaane aambaa khallaa "The mango was eaten by Raam", Raamaane saangitale "It was told by Ram" Bhaave prayog refers to a sentence construction in which the verb does not change according to either the subject or the object. This is used for imperatives. Maajha nirop tyaala jaaun saang "Give my message to him" [edit] Pronouns There are three grammatical persons (Purushh) in Marathi.

Pratham purushh (First person) mi "I" aamhi "we" excluding the listener (exclusive "we") aapan "we" including the listener (inclusive "we") Dwitiya purushh (Second person) tuu "you" tumhi "you" (plural or formal) aapan (extremely formal) Trutiya purushh (Third person) to "he" tii "she" te "it" te "they" (masculine) or "he" (formal) tyaa "they" (feminine) tii "they" (neuter) [edit] Parts of speech Marathi words can be classified in any of the following parts:

Naam (noun) Vishesh Naam (proper noun) Sarva naam (pronoun) VisheshaN (adjective) Kriya VisheshaN (adverb) Kriyapad (verb) Avyay Ubhayanvayi Avyay Shabd Yogi Avyay Keval Prayogi Avyay [edit] Sentence structure The usual word order in a sentence is Subject Object Verb (SOV); however, because of the extensive declension and conjugation patterns, order can be changed for stess purposes without a loss in meaning (unlike English).

[edit] Nominal inflection Marathi is a highly inflected language, like the other ancient Indo-Europeanlanguages such as its own mother Sanskrit. While English uses prepositions, in Marathi, such functions are indicated through the use of case-suffixes. These are referred to as vibhaktii pratyay. There are eight such vibhaktii in Marathi. The form of the original word changes when such a suffix is to be attached to the word, and the new, modified root is referred to as saamaanya ruup of the original word. For example, the word ghoṛaa ("horse") gets transformed into ghauṛyaa- when the suffix -var ("on") is attached to it to form ghauṛyaavar ("on the horse").

[edit] Vocabulary Along with Sanskrit derivatives, Marathi uses a number of modified Urdu, Persian and Arabic words, because of the extensive influence of Muslim and Maratha rulers.

[edit] Word origins Marathi has borrowed and given words from/to Sanskrit, Hindi, Urdu, Arabic, Persian, and Portuguese.

Khurchii "chair" is derived from Arabic kursi Jaahiraat "advertisement" is derived from Persian zaahiraat See Note 1 Shiphaaras "recommendation" is derived from Persian sifarish Marjii "wish" is derived from Persian "marzi" Batataa "potato", is derived from Portuguese Ananas "pineapple", is derived from Portuguese See Note 2 Niga "looking after" is derived from Persian nîgâh "sight-vision" A lot of English words are commonly used in conversation, and are considered to be totally assimilated into the Marathi vocabulary. These include "pen" (native Marathi lekhaṇii), "shirt" (sadaraa).

[edit] Forming Complex Words Marathi uses many morphological processes to join words together, forming complex words. These processes are traditionally referred to as sandhi (from Sanskrit, "combination"). For example, ati + uttam gives the word atyuttam.

Another method of combining words is referred to as samaas (from Sanskrit, "margin"). There are no reliable rules to follow to make a samaas. When the second word starts with a consonant, a sandhi can not be formed, but a samaas can be formed. For example, miith-bhaakar ("salt-bread"), udyog-patii ("businessman"), ashṭa-bhujaa ("eight-hands", name of a Hindu goddess), and so on. There are different names given to each type of samaas.

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