लैंगिकता परिवर्तन उपचार

विकिपीडिया, मुक्‍त ज्ञानकोशातून

लैंगिकता परिवर्तन उपचार किंवा लैंगिक कल परिवर्तन उपचार ही मानसिक किंवा शारीरिक किंवा आध्यात्मिक साधनांचा वापर करून एखाद्या व्यक्तीचे लैंगिक कल समलैंगिकता किंवा उभयलैंगिकता पासून विषमलैंगिक करण्यासाठी बदलण्याचा प्रयत्न करणारी छद्म (खोटा) वैज्ञानिक अभ्यास आहे. लैंगिक कल बदलले जाऊ शकते याबद्दल कोणतेही विश्वसनीय पुरावे नाहीत आणि वैद्यकीय संस्था चेतावणी देतात की ही परिवर्तन उपचार पद्धती कुचकामी आणि संभाव्य हानिकारक आहेत. [१] [२] [३] [४] [५] [६] [७] [८] अमेरिका आणि युनायटेड किंगडममधील वैद्यकीय, वैज्ञानिक आणि सरकारी संस्थांनी रूपांतरण थेरपीची वैधता, कार्यक्षमता आणि नैतिकतेबद्दल चिंता व्यक्त केली आहे. [९] [१०] २०२१ मध्ये मद्रास उच्च न्यायालयाने भारतात लैंगिक कल परिवर्तन उपचारावर बंदी आणली आहे. [११] जगभरातील विविध न्यायालयांनी लैंगिक कल परिवर्तन उपचाराविरूद्ध कायदे केले आहेत.


नॅशनल असोसिएशन फॉर रिसर्च अँड थेरेपी ऑफ होमोसेक्सुलिटी (एनएआरटीएच) ही लैंगिक कल परिवर्तन उपचाराची वकिली करणारी प्रमुख संस्था होती. कट्टरपंथी ख्रिश्चन गट आणि काही इतर संस्थांनी थेरपीसाठी धार्मिक औचित्य वापरले आहे. [४]

वैद्यकीय, वैज्ञानिक आणि कायदेशीर दृष्टिकोन[संपादन]

कायदेशीर स्थिती[संपादन]

अल्पवयीन मुलांवर लैंगिक कल परिवर्तन उपचार यावर बंदी घालणाऱ्या कार्यक्षेत्रांचा नकाशा
  लैंगिक कल परिवर्तन उपचारावर बंदी
  लैंगिक कल परिवर्तन उपचारावर वस्तुतः बंदी
  प्रकरणानुसार बंदी
   लैंगिक कल परिवर्तन उपचारावर बंदी प्रलंबित किंवा प्रस्तावित
  लैंगिक कल परिवर्तन उपचारावर बंदी नाही

आरोग्य संस्थांची भूमिका[संपादन]

लैंगिक कल बदलण्याच्या प्रयत्नांची जगभरातील अनेक आरोग्य संघटनांनी निंदा व टीका केली आहे. [१२] [१३] [१४] अमेरिकेच्या राष्ट्रीय आरोग्य संघटनांनी जाहीर केले आहे की गेल्या चाळीस वर्षांत लैंगिक कल परिवर्तन उपचाराच्या कार्यक्षमतेचे कोणतेही वैज्ञानिक प्रदर्शन झाले नाही. [१५] त्यांना असे आढळले आहे की लैंगिक कल परिवर्तन उपचार कुचकामी, धोकादायक आणि हानिकारक असू शकते. बरे करण्याचे दावे प्रतिपक्ष हानी पोहचविण्याद्वारे संतुलित आहेत आणि उदाहरणार्थ अमेरिकन सायकायट्रिक असोसिएशन, हिपोक्रेटसची शपथ अंतर्गत नीतिनिक अभ्यासकांना इजा करण्याचा इशारा देते की कोणतीही हानी करू नये आणि लैंगिक कल परिवर्तन उपचाराच्या प्रयत्नांपासून परावृत्त व्हा. [१६]

अनेक मुख्य वैद्यकीय संस्था नमूद करतात की लैंगिक कल परिवर्तन उपचार हानिकारक असू शकते कारण ही पद्धत अपराधीपणाच्या भावनेचा आणि चिंतेचा गैरफायदा घेईल आणि यामुळे आत्म-सन्मान हानी पोहचू शकते आणि याचा परिणाम नैराश्य आणि आत्महत्या देखील होऊ शकतो. मानसिक आरोग्य समुदायामध्ये अशी भीती आहे की लैंगिक कल परिवर्तन उपचाराचे प्रसारण लैंगिकते बद्दल आणि समलैंगिक आणि उभयलैंगिक लोकांना सुखी, निरोगी आयुष्य जगण्याची क्षमते बद्दल चुकीचे मत पसरवून सामाजिक हानी पोहोचवू शकते.

लैंगिक कल परिवर्तन उपचाराला दोषदर्षी घोषित करणाऱ्या आरोग्य संस्थांची यादी[संपादन]

बहु-राष्ट्रीय आरोग्य संस्था[संपादन]
अमेरिकेतील आरोग्य संस्था[संपादन]
  • अमेरिकन वैद्यकीय संघटना [२१]
  • अमेरिकन मनोविकृती संघटना [१३] [१४]
  • अमेरिकन सायकोलॉजिकल असोसिएशन
  • अमेरिकन असोसिएशन फॉर मॅरेज अँड फॅमिली थेरपी [२२]
  • अमेरिकन समुपदेशन संघटना
  • नॅशनल असोसिएशन ऑफ सोशल वर्कर्स
  • अमेरिकन ॲकॅडेमि ऑफ पेडियाट्रिक्स [२३]
  • अमेरिकन ॲकॅडेमि ऑफ फिजीशियन असिस्टंट्स [२४] [२५]
  • अमेरिकन असोसिएशन ऑफ सेक्षुॲलिटी एज्युकेटर्स, कौन्सेलर्स अँड थेरपीस्ट्स[२६]
यूके मधील आरोग्य संस्था[संपादन]
  • नॅशनल असोसिएशन ऑफ स्कूल सायकॉलॉजिस्टस [१२]
  • यूके कौन्सिल फॉर सायकोथेरपी [१२]
  • ब्रिटीश असोसिएशन ऑफ कौन्सेलिंग अँड सायकोथेरपी [१२]
  • ब्रिटिश सायकोलॉजिकल सोसायटी [१२]
  • ब्रिटिश सायकोॲनॅलिटिक कौन्सिल [१२]
  • रॉयल कॉलेज ऑफ सायकायट्रिस्टस् [१२] [२७]
  • ब्रिटीश असोसिएशन ऑफ बेहेविओरल अँड कॉग्निटिव्ह सायकोथेरपीस् [२७]
  • असोसिएशन ऑफ ख्रिश्चन कौन्सेलर्स [२७]
  • नॅशनल कौन्सेलिंग सोसायटी [२७]
  • स्कॉटिश नॅशनल हेल्थ सर्व्हिसेस [२७]
  • इंग्लिश नॅशनल हेल्थ सर्व्हिसेस [२७]
  • रॉयल कॉलेज ऑफ जनरल प्रॅक्टिशनर्स [२७]
ऑस्ट्रेलियातील आरोग्य संस्था[संपादन]
  • ऑस्ट्रेलियन मेडिकल असोसिएशन [२८] [२९]
  • ऑस्ट्रेलियन सायकोलॉजिकल सोसायटी
  • राष्ट्रीय एलजीबीटीआय हेल्थ अलायन्स [३०]
  • रॉयल ऑस्ट्रेलियन कॉलेज ऑफ जनरल प्रॅक्टिशनर्स [३१]
  • रॉयल ऑस्ट्रेलियन कॉलेज ऑफ फिजिशियनच्या अध्यक्षा डॉ. कॅथरीन येलँड यांनी महाविद्यालयाने प्रसिद्ध केलेल्या निवेदनात म्हटले आहे की "[जी] ए धर्मांतरण थेरपी अनैतिक, हानिकारक आहे आणि वैद्यकीय पुराव्यांद्वारे समर्थित नाही." [३२] [३३]
  • रॉयल ऑस्ट्रेलियन आणि न्यू झीलंड कॉलेज ऑफ सायकियाट्रिस्ट [३४]
इतर आरोग्य संस्था[संपादन]

संदर्भ[संपादन]

  1. ^ Drescher & Zucker 2006
  2. ^ Ford 2001
  3. ^ Cruz, David B. (1999). "Controlling Desires: Sexual Orientation Conversion and the Limits of Knowledge and Law" (PDF). Southern California Law Review. 72 (5): 1297–400. PMID 12731502. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 September 2017. 25 November 2016 रोजी पाहिले.
  4. ^ a b Yoshino 2002
  5. ^ Haldeman 1991
  6. ^ Cianciotto, Jason; Cahill, Sean (2006). "Youth in the Crosshairs: the Third Wave of Ex-gay Activism" (PDF). National LGBTQ Task Force. National LGBTQ Task Force Policy Institute. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 June 2007. 14 January 2019 रोजी पाहिले. There is a growing body of evidence that conversion therapy not only does not work, but also can be extremely harmful, resulting in depression, social isolation from family and friends, low self-esteem, internalized homophobia, and even attempted suicide.
  7. ^ Haldeman, Douglas C. (December 1999). "The Pseudo-science of Sexual Orientation Conversion Therapy" (PDF). Angles: The Policy Journal of the Institute for Gay and Lesbian Strategic Studies. 4 (1): 1–4. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 January 2018. 16 March 2018 रोजी पाहिले. Conversion therapy can be harmful.
  8. ^ Glassgold 2009: "As noted previously, early research indicates that aversive techniques have been found to have very limited benefits as well as potentially harmful effects."
  9. ^ American Psychiatric Association (May 2000). "Position Statement on Therapies Focused on Attempts to Change Sexual Orientation (Reparative or Conversion Therapies)". American Psychiatric Association. Archived from the original on 10 January 2011. 28 August 2007 रोजी पाहिले. In December of 1998, the Board of Trustees issued a position statement that the American Psychiatric Association opposes any psychiatric treatment, such as "reparative" or conversion therapy, which is based upon the assumption that homosexuality per se is a mental disorder or based upon the a priori assumption that a patient should change his/her sexual homosexual orientation. ... The validity, efficacy and ethics of clinical attempts to change an individual's sexual orientation have been challenged. To date, there are no scientifically rigorous outcome studies to determine either the actual efficacy or harm of "reparative" treatments. (references omitted)
  10. ^ Glassgold 2009
  11. ^ "'Cure therapy' ban to training for police: Madras HC reaches out to LGBTQ". The Indian Express (इंग्रजी भाषेत). 2021-06-08. 2021-06-29 रोजी पाहिले.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g "Conversion Therapy: Consensus Statement" (PDF). bps.org.uk. UK Council for Psychotherapy. p. 2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 May 2017. 16 December 2017 रोजी पाहिले. चुका उधृत करा: अवैध <ref> tag; नाव "UK" वेगवेगळ्या मजकूराशी अनेकदा जोडलेले आहे
  13. ^ a b "Health and Medical Organization Statements on Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity/Expression and 'Reparative Therapy'". lambdalegal.org. Lambda Legal. चुका उधृत करा: अवैध <ref> tag; नाव "Lambda" वेगवेगळ्या मजकूराशी अनेकदा जोडलेले आहे
  14. ^ a b "Policy and Position Statements on Conversion Therapy". Human Rights Campaign. Human Rights Campaign. 12 April 2017 रोजी पाहिले. चुका उधृत करा: अवैध <ref> tag; नाव "HRC" वेगवेगळ्या मजकूराशी अनेकदा जोडलेले आहे
  15. ^ "Answers to Your Questions: For a Better Understanding of Sexual Orientation and Homosexuality". American Psychological Association. 2008. 31 January 2015 रोजी पाहिले.
  16. ^ "Therapies Focused on Attempts to Change Sexual Orientation". Psych.org. Archived from the original on 10 September 2008. 18 July 2011 रोजी पाहिले.
  17. ^ "WPA Position Statement on Gender Identity and Same-Sex Orientation, Attraction, and Behaviours". wpanet.org. World Psychiatric Association. March 2016. Archived from the original on 17 April 2016. 16 December 2017 रोजी पाहिले. There is no sound scientific evidence that innate sexual orientation can be changed. Furthermore, so-called treatments of homosexuality can create a setting in which prejudice and discrimination flourish, and they can be potentially harmful. The provision of any intervention purporting to 'treat' something that is not a disorder is wholly unethical. ... WPA considers same-sex attraction, orientation, and behaviour as normal variants of human sexuality. It recognises the multi-factorial causation of human sexuality, orientation, behaviour, and lifestyle. It acknowledges the lack of scientific efficacy of treatments that attempt to change sexual orientation and highlights the harm and adverse effects of such 'therapies'.
  18. ^ Lace-Evans, Olivia (30 March 2016). "Global health group takes on gay conversion therapy". BBC News. British Broadcasting Company.
  19. ^ "'Therapies' to change sexual orientation lack medical justification and threaten health". paho.org. Pan American Health Organization of the World Health Organization.
  20. ^ Powell, Lois; Hein, Laura. "Position Statement on Reparative Therapy" (PDF). ispn-psych.org. International Society of Psychiatric-Mental Health Nurses. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 May 2017. In fact 'reparative or conversion therapies' have not supported authentic change in sexual orientation itself. ... There is no conclusive evidence that 'reparative therapy' is beneficial to patients. ... Harmful sequelae of reparative therapy reported in the literature include anxiety, depression, avoidance of intimacy, sexual dysfunction, PTSD, loss of self-confidence and self-efficacy, shame/guilt, self-destructive behavior, and suicidality.
  21. ^ American Medical Association policy regarding sexual orientation
  22. ^ McGeorge, Christi R.; Carlson, Thomas Stone; Toomey, Russell B. (2015). "An Exploration of Family Therapists' Beliefs about the Ethics of Conversion Therapy: The Influence of Negative Beliefs and Clinical Competence With Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Clients". Journal of Marital and Family Therapy. 41 (1): 42–56. doi:10.1111/jmft.12040. ISSN 0194-472X. PMID 24750074.
  23. ^ Homosexuality and Adolesence
  24. ^ Just the Facts About Sexual Orientation & Youth: A Primer for Principals, Educators and School Personnel
  25. ^ Physician Assistants vote on retail clinics, reparative therapy
  26. ^ "Position on Sexual Orientation and Reparative Therapy". aasect.org. American Association of Sexuality Educators, Counselors and Therapists. 9 February 2017 रोजी पाहिले.
  27. ^ a b c d e f g "Memorandum of Understanding on Conversion Therapy in the UK" (PDF). psychotherapy.org.uk. UK Department of Health. November 2015.
  28. ^ Australian Medical Association (21 June 2007). "AMA Position Statement – Sexual Diversity and Gender Identity (2002): A submission to the Australian Human Rights Commission Inquiry "Same-Sex: Same Entitlements"". Australian Human Rights Commission. Archived from the original on 22 December 2015. 17 March 2018 रोजी पाहिले. The AMA opposes the use of "reparative" or "conversion" therapy that is based upon the assumption that homosexuality is a mental disorder and that the patient should change his or her sexual orientation.
  29. ^ Australian Medical Association (20 May 2017). "AMA Position Statement – Marriage Equality". Archived from the original on 6 July 2017. 17 March 2018 रोजी पाहिले. There are real and significant mental and physiological health impacts arising from structural discrimination, and the AMA supports moves to eliminate it in all of its forms. All Australian doctors should offer sensitive, non-discriminatory care to all of their patients, regardless of their sexual orientation or gender identity.
  30. ^ Rosenstreich, Gabi (2013). LGBTI People: Mental Health and Suicide (PDF) (2nd ed.). Sydney: National LGBTI Health Alliance. p. 10. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 April 2015. 17 March 2018 रोजी पाहिले. Experiences of LGBTI people include violence, refusal or reluctance to treat or if treating to acknowledge a health concern directly related to their sexual orientation, gender identity or intersex status. They also include homophobic and transphobic treatment paradigms, for example, pathologising LGBTI identity as a symptom of mental ill-health and using conversion therapies for same-sex attracted people (also known as reparative therapy). This practice claims to change sexual orientation and has been condemned the Australian Psychological Society and numerous other Australian and international professional associations as not only not working (as it is based on false premises) but also as unethical and harmful to the wellbeing of those who undergo it.
  31. ^ Royal Australian College of General Practitioners (2016). "SG16 – Sex, sexuality, gender diversity and health contextual unit". Archived from the original on 23 April 2017. 17 March 2018 रोजी पाहिले. [G]eneral practitioners (GPs) [must] have a good understanding of the diversity of sex, sexuality and gender in Australia, and to approach every individual in a holistic and non-judgemental way, minimise discrimination and obstacles to care access, and optimise the quality of healthcare that they provide. The title of this contextual unit is intentionally broad to encompass individuals who may identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex, queer (LGBTIQ), asexual, pansexual, those who do not identify with any particular gender or sexual orientation, and those who prefer not to be categorised. The purpose of this unit is to challenge the 'binary' approach to provision of healthcare by GPs, in which assumptions and judgements are made about an individual's sex, sexuality and/or gender based on appearances and/or what is considered by the individual GP to be 'normal.' This approach is essentially flawed and typically impacts the quality of care that can be provided. ... GPs have an important role to play in advocating to reduce discrimination and in creating meaningful therapeutic relationships with LGBTIQ individuals to improve healthcare access. The establishment of high-quality therapeutic relationships and delivery of quality care to these individuals draws on the core skills in The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners' (RACGP's) 2016 curriculum.
  32. ^ Medhora, Shalailah (21 September 2017). "'Ludicrous practice' of gay conversion therapy to be scrutinised". Hack, Triple J. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Archived from the original on 22 September 2017. 17 March 2018 रोजी पाहिले. Medical groups like the Australian Medical Association and the Royal Australasian College of Physicians have slammed gay conversion therapy.
  33. ^ Bell, Melissah; Costiga, Genevieve (18 September 2017). "Doctors criticise gay conversion therapy remarks in marriage equality debate" (PDF) (Press release). Royal Australasian College of Physicians jointly with the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 March 2018. 17 March 2018 रोजी पाहिले.
  34. ^ Board, Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists (March 2016). "Position Statement 83 – Recognising and addressing the mental health needs of people identifying as LGBTI". Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists. Archived from the original on 1 October 2017. 17 March 2018 रोजी पाहिले. [S]exual orientation change efforts, or often non-consensual therapies intended to change the sexual orientation of a person, are now broadly understood to be harmful and unethical
  35. ^ "Stellungnahme der Österreichischen Gesellschaft für Public Health" (PDF). oeph.at. 2020-12-15 रोजी पाहिले.
  36. ^ "CPA Policy Statement on Conversion/Reparative Therapy for Sexual Orientation" (PDF). cpa.ca. Canadian Psychological Association. 2015.
  37. ^ "Questions and Answers: Sexual Orientation in Schools – What do we know?". canada.ca. Government of Canada. 7 March 2014. A student's sexual orientation is not a 'lifestyle' choice and under no circumstances should a student be counselled to change or attempt to 'repair' their sexual orientation. These kinds of 'conversion' or 'reparative' therapies have been criticized and discouraged by the American Psychological Association and by many teacher associations across Canada. Clinical research has demonstrated that these approaches are largely ineffective, ignore the impact of social stigmatization on mental health, and in some cases, can be extremely dangerous, particularly for vulnerable youth. Instead of attempting to change a student's sexual orientation, educators, administrators, and health care professionals should focus on helping the youth and their family to develop active coping mechanisms to address issues related to internalized homophobia, stigma, prejudice and discrimination.
  38. ^ Kjær, Reider (2003). "Look to Norway? Gay Issues and Mental Health Across the Atlantic Ocean". Journal of Gay & Lesbian Psychotherapy. 7 (1/2): 55–73. doi:10.1300/J236v07n01_05. In October 2000, the General Assembly [of the Norwegian Psychiatric Association] voted overwhelmingly (about 90%) in favor of the following statement ... Homosexuality is no disorder or illness, and can therefore not be subject to treatment. A 'treatment' with the only aim of changing sexual orientation from homosexual to heterosexual must be regarded as ethical malpractice, and has no place in the health system.
  39. ^ "Posición del Colegio de Psicólogos de Chile acerca de las terapias reparativas para curar la homosexualidad" (PDF) (स्पॅनिश भाषेत). Colegio de Psicólogos de Chile. 27 September 2018 रोजी पाहिले.
  40. ^ "Resolução CFP 01/1999" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 November 2017. 9 April 2018 रोजी पाहिले.
  41. ^ "Indian Psychiatric Society official statement: homosexuality is not a mental illness". Orinam. 6 February 2014. 6 February 2014 रोजी पाहिले.
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