प्राचीन तमिळ राष्ट्र
|ह्या लेखाचा/विभागाचा इंग्रजी किंवा अमराठी भाषेतून मराठी भाषेत भाषांतर करावयाचे बाकी आहे. अनुवाद करण्यास आपलाही सहयोग हवा आहे. ऑनलाईन शब्दकोश आणि इतर सहाय्या करिता भाषांतर प्रकल्पास भेट द्या.
प्राचीन तमिळ राष्ट्र/ संगम काळ The Sangam period is the earliest historical period in the history of South India, spanning about the 3rd century BC to the 3rd century AD. It is named for the Tamil Sangams or "assemblies".
In Old Tamil, the term Tamilakam (Tamiḻakam தமிழகம், Purananuru 168.18) referred to the whole of the "Ancient Tamil country," as distinct from the many kingdoms that existed within its boundaries, corresponding roughly to the area known as South India today, including the territories of the present-day Indian states of Tamil Nadu, केरळ, Laccadives, parts of Andhra Pradesh and some parts of Karnataka, as well as the Maldives. South India was known as Damirica, Dramira or Lymirikē to Greco-Roman geographers.
By the medieval period, the Cholas had established a powerful empire that stretched from the Maldives through much of South East Asia, encompassing the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Singapore, Malaysia, श्रीलंका, Sumatra, Thailand and Myanmar.
Tamilakam's history is split into three periods; prehistoric, classical (see Sangam period) and medieval. A vast array of literary, epigraphical and inscribed sources from around the world provide insight into the socio-political and cultural occurrences in the Tamil nation.
Tamil was once the richest language found in world. It had many grammar literatures before two thousand years. In the ancient india, sanskrit and tamil flourished. In the mean time , by western influence sanskrit disappeared. Tamil still prevails as the main language of dravidians.
- हेसुद्धा पाहा: Economy of ancient Tamil country, Agriculture in ancient Tamil country, आणि Industry in ancient Tamil country
The religion of the ancient Tamils closely followed the roots of nature worship and some claim it close to its contemporary in North India, Vedic Hinduism. Tolkappiyam, one of the oldest grammar work in Tamil mentions Kottravai (Mother goddess) Sevvael (Murugan), Thirumaal, Vendhan (Indra) and Varunan .Other ancient works refer to Mayon (Krishna) and Balarama. The influence of Hinduism in Tamil literature rose again during the Bhakti period which documented the people organizing into Saivam(Shiva) and vainavam(Vishnu). The most popular deity was Murugan, who has from a very early date been identified with Karthikeya, the son of Siva. Muruga might have been a different deity originally stemming from a local deity. According to the noted expert on Tamil culture Kamil V. Zvelebil, "Subrahmanya-Murugan is one of the most complicated and baffling deities for analysis". The later(medieval to present) worship of Amman or Mariamman, thought to have been derived from Kotravai, an ancient mother goddess, also was very common. Kannagi, the heroine of the Cilappatikaram, was worshipped as Pathini by many Tamils, particularly in Sri Lanka. There were also many temples and devotees of Thirumaal, Siva, Ganapathi, and the other common Hindu deities.
In the ancient Sangam literature, the Tamil landscape was classified into five categories, thinais, based on the mood, season and the land. Each of these thinai had an associated deity such as Mayavan, Velavan, etc.
The ancient Tamil calendar was based on the sidereal year similar to the ancient Hindu solar calendar, except that months were from solar calculations, and originally there was no 60 year cycle as seen in Sanskrit calendar. The year was made up of twelve months and every two months constituted a season. With the popularity of Mazhai vizhavu, traditionally commencement of Tamil year was clubbed on April 14, deviating from the astronomical date of vadavazhi vizhavu.
- Pongal, the festival of harvest and spring, thanking Lord Sevvéļ and Lord El(the sun), comes on January 14/15(Thai 1) .
- PeruVaenil Kadavizha, the festival for wishing quick and easy passage of the mid-summer months, on the day when the Sun or El stands directly above the head at noon(the start of Agni Natchaththiram) at the southern tip of ancient Tamil land. This day comes on April 14/15(Ootrai 1) .
- Mazhai Vizhavu, aka Indhira Vizha, the festival for want of rain, celebrated for one full month starting from the full moon in Ootrai(later name-Cittirai) and completed on the full moon in Puyaazhi(Vaikaasi)( which coincides with Buddhapurnima ) .
- Puyaazhi(Vaikaasi) visaagam and Thai poosam, the festivals of Tamil God Sevvaell's birth and accession to the Thirupparankundram Koodal Academy, coming on the day before the full moons of Puyaazhi and Thai respectively.
- Soornavai Vizha, the slaying of legendary Kadamba Asura king Surabadma, by Lord Sevvaell, comes on the sixth day after newmoon in Itrai (Kaarthigai) .
- Vaadai Vizha or Vadavazhi Vizha, the festival of welcoming the Lord El back to home, as He turns northward, celebrated on December 21/22 (Winter Solstice)(the sixth day of Panmizh[Maargazhi]) .
- the Semmeen Ezhumin Vizhavu (Aathi-Iřai Darisanam) or Aruthra Darishanam, the occasion of Lord Siva coming down from the ThiruCitrambalam and taking a look at the vaigarai Thiru Aathirai star in the early morning on the day before the full moon in Panmizh. Aathi Irai min means the star of the God(Siva) on the Bull(Nandi) .
Musicians, stage artists and performers entertained the kings, the nobility, the rich and the general population. Groups of performers included:
- Thudian, players of the thudi, a small percussion instrument
- Paraiyan, who beat maylam(drums) and performed kooththu, a stage drama in dance form, as well as proclaiming the king's announcements
- Muzhavan, who blew into a muzhavu, a wind instrument, for the army indicating the start and end of the day and battlefield victories. They also performed in kooththu alongside other artists .
- Kadamban who beat a large bass-like drum, the kadamparai, and blew a long bamboo, kuzhal, the cerioothuthi (similar to the present naagasuram).
- PaaNan, who sang songs in all pann tunes (tunes that are specific for each landscape) and were masters of the yaazh, a stringed instrument with a wide frequency range.
Together with the poets (pulavar) and the academic scholars (saandror), these people of talent appeared to originate from all walks of life, irrespective of their native profession.
The land was divided into five types- Kurinci, Mullai, Marutam, Neithal and Paalai . The ancient Tamil people were divided into five different clans (kudi) based on their profession. They were
- the Vaelir - the farmers,
- the Malavar - the hill people who gather hill products, and the traders,
- the Naagar - people in charge of border security, who guarded the city wall and distant fortresses .
- the Kadambar - people who thrive on forests and
- the Thiraiyar - the seafarers.
All the five kudi constituted a typical settlement, which was called an Ur or Oor. Later each clan spread across the land, formed individual settlements of their own and concentrated into towns, cities and countries. Thus the Vaelir settled in North Tamil Nadu and South Andhra Pradesh, while the Mazhavar came to live in केरळ, West Tamil Nadu, East Andhra Pradesh and South Sri Lanka. The Naagar inhabited South and East Tamil Nadu, and North Sri Lanka[ संदर्भ हवा ], while the Kadambar settled in Central Tamil Nadu first and later moved to West Karnataka. The Thiraiyar inhabitated throughout the coastal regions . Later various subsects were formed based on more specific professions in each of the five landscapes .
- Poruppan(the soldiers), Verpan(the leaders of the tribe/weaponists), Silamban(masters of martial arts/the art of fighting), Kuravar(the hunters and the gatherers, the people of foothills) and Kaanavar(the people of the mountainous forests ) in Kurinci,
- KuRumpoRai naadan-Kizhaththi(the landlord of the small towns amidst the forests in the valleys), ThonRal-Manaivi(the ministers and other noble couples), Idaiyar(the milkmaid and family), Aaiyar(the cattle-rearers) in Mullai,
- Paalai is a dry land.The people who lived here were Eyinar,eyitriyar.Their work is robbery.
- Mallar/Pallar(Farmers and Warriors), vendan(chera,chola and pandiya kings are called the Vendan), Uran(small landlords), Magizhnan(successful small scale farmers), Uzhavar(the farm workers), Kadaiyar(the merchants) in Marutham, and
- Saerppan(the seafood vendors and traders), Pulampan(the vegetarians who thrive on coconut and palm products), Parathar Paravas(people who lived near the seas-the rulers,sea warriors, merchants and the pirates), NuLaiyar(the wealthy people who both do fishing and grow palm farms) and ALavar(the salt cultivators) in Neithal .
List of kingdoms and city-states[संपादन]
- Naanjil(1)- in the present Kanyakumari district in Tamil Nadu .
- Pothigai (Aai) nadu(2)- the Cardamom hills and Palani hills of Southwest Tamil Nadu .
- Kaandhal KuRa Nadu(3)- TenKasi and Kutrraalam, Thirunelvaeli dt .
- Koadai malai(4)- Kodaikkanal, Dindigul dt .
- Malai Nadu(5)- the Anaimalai Range in केरळ.
- Evvi's Needoor-Mizhalai (6)- Pudukottai district in TN.
- Parampu malai(7)- West Namakkal dt.
- Thoandri malai(8)- Pachchai malai,Perambalur dt .
- MuLLur Nadu and capital ThirukKoilur (9)- West Vizhuppuram, West Thiruvannamalai dt's.
- Kolli malai nadu (10) - East Namakkal dt.
- Oaymaan Nadu (11) in the Aruva Nadu and Aruva vadathalai nadu region- East Thirvannamalai and East Vellore dt.
- Punnaadu(12)- East Thiruvannamalai dt .
- VaaNar Nadu(13)- West Vellore and Chittor dt's .
- ThoNdai Nadu (14)- Kanchipuram and Thiruvallur dt's .
- Mukkaaval Nadu (15) - Vellore dt .
- Kaankezhu Nadu (16) or Thirumunaippadi- East Vizhuppuram dt.
- Mudhira malai (17)- Chennai dt .
- Athigan Nadu(18) and its capital Thagadur- Dharmapuri dt .
- Kudhirai malai(19)- West Dharmapuri and East Mandya dt's .
- Payalanadu( Vaiyaavi )(20)- Krishnagiri, Kolar, Anantpur, Bellary dt's .
- VaeLaavi Nadu( Vaengi )(21)-Krishna and Guntur dts.
- Vellimalai(22)- North and West of Thirupathi .
- Vaengada Nadu(23) - Rayalaseema dt .
- Pungi Nadu (24)- West Chittoor dt.
- Mazhampula Nadu (25)- South of Kalahasthi up to Pulicat .
- Pulli Nadu (26) - South East coast of A.P.
- Erumai Nadu (27)- Central and Northwest Mysore dt .
- VeLimaan Nadu (28)-West Mysore
- Oonoor Kosar (29)- Raichur dt .
- Idaichchura Nadu (30) - Raichur dt .
- Irungoe Nadu or Araiya Nadu(31) and Citraraiyam and Paeraraiyam forts- Tumkur and Chitradurga dt's .
- Vichchikoe Nadu(32)- North of Ooty dt .
- Thoatti malai (33) -Ooty dt.
- Kuda Nadu or SengaNmaa Nadu (34) - Coorg dt .
- Kuttuva Nadu (35)- North Malbar dt .
- Cera Paayal malai (36) - North Malabar dt .
- Kadamba Nadu (37) -Hangal, Hampi(Banavasi), Uchchangi,Dharwar dt's and KoNkan coast up to Goa .
- KoNkaana Nadu (38)- Southwest Maharashtra's KoNkan coast, north of Goa .
- Malli Nadu (39)- Udipi dt .
- Karuvoor Chera Nadu (40)- West Karur dt .
- Kongu Nadu (41)- In the present day Coimbatore, Tirupur, Erode, Salem, Dharmapuri, Krishnagiri, Namakkal, Karur, Dindigul, Nilagiri dists of Tamilnadu.(In Olden days included parts of Southern Karnataka and Eastern केरळ)
- Naalai city state(41)- Nanguneri, Thirunelveli dt .
- Poandhai city state(42)- Kulachchal, Kanyakumari dt .
- Koodalpattinam- Tootukudi dt .
- Eyilpattinam- North coastal Ramanathapuram dt .
- Pidavoor- Thuraiyur tk., Thiruchchi dt .
- Sirukudi- Thiruchchi dt .
- Kaanappaereyil- North Sivagangai dt.
- Azhunthur(43) - South Salem dt.
- Moagur (44) - South East Naamakkal dt .
- Pazhai Nadu- East Karur and South Namakkal dt's.
- Vallaar- North Pudukottai dt .
- Aali- North Thanjaavoor dt .
- Cellur- North Bangalore dt .
- Eernthur- North Thiruchi dt .
- Kanakasabhai, V. The Tamils Eighteen Hundred Years Ago. p. 10.
- Kanakasabhai, V. The Tamils Eighteen Hundred Years Ago. p. 10.
- Abraham, Shinu (2003). "Chera, Chola, Pandya: using archaeological evidence to identify the Tamil kingdoms of early historic South India". Asian Perspectives: the Journal of Archaeology for Asia and the Pacific. 42.
- Maloney, Clarence. "Maldives People". 2008-06-22 रोजी पाहिले.
- Zvelebil, Kamil. Companion Studies to the History of Tamil Literature.
- A. L. Basham, "The Wonder that was India", Picador (1995) ISBN 033043909X