पेरियपुराण

विकिपीडिया, मुक्‍त ज्ञानकोशातून

साचा:Tirumurai

Translation arrow-indic.svg
ह्या लेखाचा/विभागाचा इंग्रजी किंवा अमराठी भाषेतून मराठी भाषेत भाषांतर करावयाचे बाकी आहे. अनुवाद करण्यास आपलाही सहयोग हवा आहे. ऑनलाईन शब्दकोश आणि इतर सहाय्या करिता भाषांतर प्रकल्पास भेट द्या.



Periya Puranam (Tamil:பெரிய‌ புராண‌ம்)(the great purana or epic), sometimes also called Tiruttontarpuranam (the purana of the holy devotees) is a Tamil poetic account depicting the legendary lives of the sixty-three Nayanars, the canonical poets of Tamil Shaivism. It was compiled during the 12th century by Sekkizhar. It provides evidence of trade with West Asia[१] The Periya Puranam is part of the corpus of Shaiva canonical works.

Sekkizhar compiled and wrote the Periya Puranam or the Great Purana, (the life stories of the sixty-three Shaiva Nayanars, poets of the God Shiva) who composed the liturgical poems of the Tirumurai, and was later himself canonised and the work became part of the sacred canon[२]. Among all the hagiographic Puranas in Tamil, Sekkizhar's Tiruttondar Puranam or Periyapuranam, composed during the rule of Kullottonga Chola II(1133-1150) stands first[३].

Background[संपादन]

Sekkizhar was a poet and the chief minister in the court of the Chola King Kulothunga Chola II[४]. Kullottonga Chola II was a staunch devotee of Lord Siva Natraja at Chidambaram. He continued the reconstruction of the center of Tamil Saivism that was begun by his ancestors. However, Kullottonga II was also enchanted by the Jain epic, Jivaka Cintamani[४].

Jivaka Cintamani, is a courtly epic that consisted of erotic flavor called Srngara Rasa[४]. In brief, the hero of the epic is Jivaka who combines heroics and erotics to marry seven damsels and gains a kingdom. In the end he realises the transiency of possessions and renounces his kingship and finally attains Nirvana by prolonged tapas or meditation[४].

In to order to wean Kullonttonga Chola II away from a heretical work such as Jivaka Cintamani, Sekkizhar undertook the task of writing the Periyapuranam[२].

Periyapuranam[संपादन]

The study of Jivaka Cintamani by Kullottonga Chola II, deeply affected Sekkizhar who was very religious in nature. He exhorted the king to abandon the pursuit of impious erotic literature and turn instead to the life of the Saiva saints celebrated by Sundaramurti Nayanar and Nambi Andar Nambi[३]. The king thereupon invited Sekkizhar to expound the lives of the Saiva saints in a great poem. As a minister of the state Sekkizhar had access to the lives of the saints and after he collected the data, he wrote the poem in the Thousand Pillared Hall of the Chidambaram temple[५].

This work is considered the most important initiative of Kullottonga Chola II's reign[५]. Although, it is only a literary embellishment of earlier hagiographies of the Saiva saints composed by Sundarar and Nampi Antar Nambi, it came to be seen as the epitome of high standards of the Chola culture, because of the highest order of the literary style[५]. The Periyapuranam is considered as a veritable fifth Veda in Tamil and immediately took its place as the twelfth and the last book in the Saiva canon. It is considered as one of the masterpieces of the Tamil literature and worthily commemorates the Golden age of the Cholas[३].

Significance

All the saints mentioned in this epic poem are historical persons and not mythical[३]. Therefore, this is a recorded history of the 63 Saiva saints called as Nayanmars (devotees of Lord Siva), who attain salvation by their unflinching devotion to Siva. The Nayanmars that he talks about belonged to different castes, different occupations and lived in different times[३].

See also[संपादन]

References[संपादन]

  1. - glimpses of life in 12th century South India
  2. २.० २.१ A Dictionary of Indian Literature By Sujit Mukherjee
  3. ३.० ३.१ ३.२ ३.३ ३.४ Medieval Indian Literature By K. Ayyappapanicker, Sahitya Akademi
  4. ४.० ४.१ ४.२ ४.३ Criminal Gods and Demon Devotees By Alf Hiltebeitel
  5. ५.० ५.१ ५.२ The Home of Dancing Śivan̲ By Paul Younger