कळ्ळर (जाती/चादी)

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ह्या लेखाचा/विभागाचा इंग्रजी किंवा अमराठी भाषेतून मराठी भाषेत भाषांतर करावयाचे बाकी आहे. अनुवाद करण्यास आपलाही सहयोग हवा आहे. ऑनलाईन शब्दकोश आणि इतर सहाय्या करिता भाषांतर प्रकल्पास भेट द्या.


साचा:Infobox Ethnic group


Kallar (Tamil: கள்ளர்) are one of the three related castes which constitute the Mukkalathor confederacy. The community shows many signs of independence and non-submission to any form of subjugation. They strongly resisted every British attempt to subjugate them.[१] Kallars are found largely in the Thanjavur, Trichy, Pudukkottai, Madurai, Theni, Dindigul, Sivagangai, Ramanathapuram, Karur and Kanchipuram districts of Tamil Nadu. Significant Kallar populations are also found in Srilanka, Malaysia and other south east Asian countries. The Royal House of Pudukottai belongs to the Kallar community.

Meaning of Kallar[संपादन]

Kallar means "Thieves". Historians postulate the word Kallar, derived from Kalla, means "black" in Sanscrit and Tamil. (கள்வனென் கிளவி கரியோனென்ப' - திவாகரம்) They also postulate Dravidians were called Kalla by Aryans .[२].

  • A king named Pulli was mentioned as Kallar Kooman Pulli in Purananuru.
  • A Muthiraiyar king was mentioned as Kallar Kalvan ( The Killer of Thieves) Perumbidugu Muthirayan.
  • Karunira Maganaum Karkada Virisium - Pingalandai.

Indiran or Devendiaran (Devar) also mentioned as Kalla

Thirumal is also stated Mal to mean he is black. Also Krishna means black.[३] In olden days black Dravidians were stated as Kalla to state their bravery.

Many historians postulate Kallar means Black, to state their bravery and to relate their lineage from Chola and Pallava.

  • Srinivasa Iyengar (ம. சீனிவாசையங்கார்)
  • Vengaswamy Rao (வெங்காசாமி ராவ்)
  • Dr.Barnal (டாக்டர் பர்னலும்)
  • Vinsan A.Smith (வின்சன் ஏ. ஸ்மித் என்னும் சரித்திர அறிஞர் 'புராதன இந்திய சரித்திரம் என்னும் தமது நூலில் பல்லவர் வரலாறு கூறுமிடத்தே கள்ளர் வகுப்பினரையும் இயைந்து கூறுகின்றனர்)
  • Na Mu Venkataswmy Nattar(நாவலர் பண்டித ந மு வேங்கடசாமி நாட்டார் )

Mukkulathor[संपादन]

Kallar are one of the castes in the Mukkulathor (meaning three clans) community. The other two being Maravar and Agamudayar. Together they are called Thevar (Estimated population 1,30,00,000). The royal शीर्षक "Thevar/Devar" means Divine. In olden days the people viewed kings as a representation of Gods and were accorded शीर्षकs of respect. Many historians postulate that they are the descendants of the 3 kings who founded the Chera, Chola and Pandyan dynasties.

Sangam Age[संपादन]

Kallar, along with Maravar, are one of the ancient clans mentioned in the Sangam literature. The literature from the first Tamil Sangam period is dated around the last centuries of the pre-Christian era. In the Sangam period Kallar inhabited Palai along with Maravar and Katambar clans.[४]

Thondaiman

The Kings (Araiyars), known as Thondaiman, were then ruling Thondai Nadu (Thondaimandalam). There are hundreds of records pertaining to this dynasty. Thondai in Tamil means Kilai or Pirivu, Pallava in Sanskrit means the same. This indicates that Thondaimans were the Pallava Kings who ruled the medieval Pallava dynasty and who were in fact a later offshoot of the Chola dynasty.

Malayaman

The Kings (Araiyars) ruled Tirukkoyilur during the ascendancy of the Chola empire, with the शीर्षक Malayaman (which is one of the family names of the Kallar community). They were in close relation with Cholas. Sangam literature mentions of Tirumudikari, a Malayaman chief who fought alongside Perunarkilli Chola to defeat Cheral Irumporai (Irumporai Cheras).

Adigaman

The Kings were ruling Tagadur, present day Dharmapuri district. One of The Four kingdoms mentioned in the rock-edict of Ashoka. Adigaman Naduman Anji King of Tagadur is mentioned in the rock-edict of Ashoka as Satyaputras inscriptions found from Villupuram indicates that stating Adigaman (which is one of the family name of the Kallar community) as Satyaputra Adhiyan Neduman Anji intha Pali.

Chola[संपादन]

Many Tamil communities calim to tbe descendants of Chole Cheras and Pandiyans. These commnities are Mukkolathors, Nadars and Vanniyars. There has been a systematic and covert attempt by these communities. All these are yet claims and let us explore these claims with respect to Mukolathors here. It is advisable to veiw the claims of the others atleast in the discussion pages of other communities for an objective view.

The Chola Dynasty (Tamil:சோழர் குலம்) was a native Tamil dynasty that ruled South India and Ilangai (Ceylon) until the later half of the 13th century A.D. The other two Tamil Royal dynasties are the Pandyas and Cheras. And Pallavas are later offshoots of Cholas, and the word Pallava means branch in Sanskrit, indicating the latter as an offshoot of Cholas.

The Chola dynasty originated in the fertile valley of the Kaveri River. Karikala Chola was the most famous among the early Chola kings, while Aditya I, Parantaka I, Rajaraja Chola I, Rajendra Chola I, Rajadhiraja Chola, Virarajendra Chola, Kulothunga Chola and Kulothunga Chola III were notable emperors of the medieval Cholas.

Kalapadiyar, Melkondar, Chozangar, Thevar, etc are now used by Kallars only shows that Cholas, Pallavas and Early Pandyas were from the Royal community of Kallars. The Bramanda puranas Puvindra puranam and Kalla Kesari Purannam also Mentions the same.[५]

Lots of marriages takes place between Cholas with Malavarayar[६], malayaman[७], Paluvettaraiyar[८],Melkondar[९] and Vallavaraiyar. they also belongs to Kallar community.[१०] [११][१२]

Pallavas[संपादन]

The word Pallava (Tamil: பல்லவர்) means branch in Sanskrit, denoting that they are a later offshoot (Kilai) of Cholas. The Pallava kingdom was a medieval Dravidian Tamil dynasty of South India that had its capital at Kanchipuram and ruled Northern Tamilnadu and Andhra Pradesh (till Northern Circars) around the 4th century CE.

They rose in power during the reign of Mahendravarman I (571 – 630 CE) and Narasimhavarman I (630 – 668 CE) and dominated the Andhra Pradesh and Northern parts of Tamil Nadu for about six hundred years until the end of the 9th century.

"Pallava" is rendered as Tondaiyar in the Tamil language. The Pallava kings at several places are called Thondamans or Thondaiyarkon. The territory of the Pallavas was known as Tundaka Visaya or Tundaka Rashtra. The Sanskrit meaning of Pallava is Kilai The Tamil Thondai means the same, it shows that Pallavas are descendants (Kilay or Pirivu) of Cholas.

Pathupattu, one of the Sangam literatures, reads that the King Thondaiman Ilandirayan ruled this town around 2,500 years ago. The Pallavas are told as the descendents of Thondaiman Ilandirayan.

They were also called by surnames like Sethurayar, Pallavarayar, Vandarayar, Kadurayar, Vallavarayar, Vanathirayar, Kaliyarayar..[१३]

Link With Pandiyan[संपादन]

Historians postulate that Pandians are Maravar but some Pandiyan kings were Kallar. A Pandiyan king was mentioned as Kallar Perumagan Thennavan. Also the bulk of Kallar warriors were serving in the Pandian army.

After the end of Pandian Rule, then Pandi nadu, also known as Kallar nadu, Was ruled by Kallar Ambalakkarrars.

Link With Cheras[संपादन]

The शीर्षक Servaikkarar, used by Mukkulathors and derived from Chera Avaikkarar, means people who served in Chera avai. Cheraavai was also called as Enperayam.

Once Chera country was ruled by eight Chera kings who combined their armies and chose one king to lead them. Avai(Where all eight kings will meet together) is known as Enperayam or Chera Avai.[१४].


People belonging to Cheraavai are called Cheravaikkarar or Servaikkarar. One of the famous kings with this शीर्षक, Maruthu Pandiyar Servaikkarar, belongs to Agamudaiyar.

Kallar also have the शीर्षक Servaikkarar and Servai, showing their relation with Cheras.

Also there were many proofs for Kallar warriors and chieftains linked with Cheras. One of the famous chieftains is Paluvettaraiyar who was in close relation with Cheras. He later joined with Cholas and was responsible for a number of benefactions to the temples at Paluvur and was related to the Chola by marriage.

Tamil copper-plate inscriptions[संपादन]

The discovery of Indian copper plate inscriptions provided a relative abundance of new evidence for use in evolving a chronicle of India's elusive history[ संदर्भ हवा ].

During Chola rule there were many small kings(Araiyar) ruling there respective areas under the Chola. Some of the names are seen in Tamil copper-plate inscriptions are also mentioned in Ponniyin Selvan (a Tamil historical novel written by Kalki Krishnamurthy)

  • Thondaiman(தொண்டைமான்)
  • Paluvettaraiyar(பழுவேட்டரையன்)
  • Malayaman(மலையமான்)
  • Vallavaraiyar(வல்லவரையன்)
  • Muniaraiyar
  • Puvaraiyar
  • Velar(வேளார்)
  • Vanataraiyar

During Vijayanagar Empire[संपादन]

The downfall of the Mukkulathors occurred in 1345 with the fall of Vira Pandyan IV and the subsequent conquest of Madurai by the Delhi Sultanate [१] However, the southern territories of the Sultanate soon asserted their independence and the Mukkulathors recovered under the Vijayanagar Empire and later under the Nayak dynasty during whose period they served as Polygars or chieftains.

The South-western parts of Tamilnadu except for Kongu Nadu was called as Kallar Nadu (Thanjavur, Trichy, Pudukkottai and part of Madurai) and was governed by Kallar Palayakkarar.

Ambalakarar were feudal chiefs of the villages and towns they ruled during 18th century. They were a warlike people who strongly resisted every British attempt to subjugate them. They are found in Madurai, Trichy and Sivaganga districts. In these districts, each village is headed by an Ambalam (president of an assembly) and the Ambalam took upon themselves the power to adjudicate disputes that arose among the inhabitants in the "NADU", belonging to different castes. They used to hear complaints, hold inquiries and punish the offenders. They wielded considerable powers to intervene in any kind of transaction or transfer of property among the people. No land could be alienated from one man to another without the permission of the Ambalams. The sur-name "Ambalam"is given to them, because of their Administration in their Villages. So they are mostly called as "Ambalam".

Thenpandi Singam by M. Karunanidhi is a book about Ambalakarars and he was also Awarded "Raja Rajan Award" by Tamil University, Thanjavur for that book and it was also been taken as a serial in Sun TV, and music composed by Ilaiyaraaja. [१]

Surnames[संपादन]

In Tamilnadu Kallars are called by various Surnames, these names comes to them during various times by the place they have ruled, the place of the battlefield and to state their strong valour and bravery in the battle with the foreign forces.

There are over 2,000 surnames in use among the community.[१४].

There is no other caste in the whole of South India which has this many surnames.

Some of the commonly used surnames are:

Thondaiman, Adigaman, Paluvettaraiyar, Thevar, Malayaman, Annuthipiriyar, Amballakkarar, Vaanathiraiyar, Rajaliyar, Servaar, Angarayar, Kaadu Vettiyar, Kalapadiyar, Senathipathiyar, Kandiyar, Mathurayar, Mannaiyar, Kalingarayar, Vanniyar, chittachiar, Pattangattiyar (Pattukati).

Karaimeendar,Kondaiyar, Kanndapillai, Vanniyar, Vallavaraiyar, Sethurayar, Thanjaraayar, Kurusar, Pallavaraayar, Vandaiyar, Etrandaar, Vaanavaraayar, Servai, Soma Naicker, Muniyarayar (Munaiyatriyar), Thondamar, Mayrkondar, Kallathil Venrar, Nattar (not the Nadar/Shanar caste), Cholagar (Solagar), Solangadevar, Kumarandar, Anjathevar, Olivarayar, Sendapiriyar, Alathondamar, Ambalam, Aarsuthiyar, Kaadavaraayar, Kalingarayar, Vandaiyaar, Veeramundar, Sepillaiyar, Vallundar, Chozhangaraayar.

Mazhavaraayar, Kommatti Mootar, Kannakkarar, Irungular, Singilaar, Ponnapoondar, Pullavaraayar, Araimeendar, Vairayar, Ponpethiar, Gopalar, Putthi Kalindar, Manrayar, Sundayar, Vayaadiyar, Vanniar, Alankara Priyar, Mavaliyar, Keerudayar, Saaluvar, Manraayar, Madhavarayar, Onthiriyar, Serumadar, Vambaliar, Thenkondaar, Palandar, Mankondaar etc.[१५]

It is a general practice in Southern Tamil Nadu to address a Thevar woman as Nachiyar.

Notable Reformers[संपादन]

Although there are Many Kings, Polygors, Zamindars and Land lords the main occupation of kallar is warrior, hence many Kallar families struggled for income during British rule and after independence. Many reformers served for their community. Though they have been warriors, they were not conferred the शीर्षक of kshatriyas with supporting mythologies by the Brahmans in the historical past as had been done by them for the Agnivanshis/Agnikulas etc. A new mythology is thus a pressing need for this community and due support is kindly solicited from the enlightened Brahman leadership towards this creation of a new mythology for Mukkulthors as kshatriyas of the south Tamil Nadu. This is needed as Mukkulathor leadership had failed to do this in ancient past on account of some unavoidable factors, unlike the leadership of the Agnivanshis/Agnikulas who managed to do this. This failure could, perhaps, be attributed to the dominance and resistance by the then dominant agnikulas of south India on conferment of kshatriya status to Mukkulathors as opposed to the conferment of kshatriya status to the Agnivanshi Rajputs and Agnikulas of South India (Agnikula/Vahinikula Kshatriyas who managed to carve out inscriptions even in Nagpur in the historic past.) The new leadership of Mukkulathor has now keenly taken up this task very seriously and solicits help from all those Brahmans, Mukkulathors or others who are willing to help create a new mythology and confer kshatriya status on the Mukkulathor.

-Freedom fighter, Politician, a descendant of Pandyas of Ramnad and known for his close friendship with Nethaji Subash Chandra Bose.

-Founder of the Pasumpon Muthuramalinga Thevar college, President of All India Forward Bloc.

-Maharajah of Pudukottai (Thondaiman dynasty of Pudukkottai)

  • Nadigar Thilagam Chevalier C.Sivaji Ganesan (நடிகர் திலகம் சிவாஜி கணேசன்)

-Famous Actor, Legend in Tamil film History.

-Tamil scholar, Tamil Activist.

  • Zamindar V. Gopalsamy Rajaliar (மேன்மை பொருந்திய வா. கோபாலசாமி ரகுநாத இராசாளியார்)

-Philanthropist, President Indra Kuladibar Sangam.

  • N.P Manicham Errthaandaar. (மக்கள் தொண்டர் ந.பா.மாணிக்கம் ஏற்றாண்டார்)

-Founder Mukkalathor Higher Secondary School and Tamilnadu Maanavar illam, Thiruverumbur, Founder Urimai murasu magazine(1954).

-Leader Kallar Maha Sangam Previous to starting Mukkulathor Sangam

  • G.M. Premkumar Vandayar, (பிரேம் குமார் வாண்டையார் )

-Founder Moovendar Munnetra Kazhagam (MMK)

-leader of Moovendar Munnetra Kazhagam (MMK)

  • DR.A.Srinivasan Vanniyar

-Founder President Tamilnadu Kallar Sangam

-Freedom fighter(recipient of "Thaamarai Pattam"), Ghandhian, social reformer

-One of the first higher civil servants from the community. Co-founder of the Pasumpon Muthuramalinga Thevar College at Usilampatti. [१६] [१७]

  • Samy Vellu, Ex-Works Minister (lost in 2008 election) and Leader of Malaysian Indian Congress
  • S. Thondaman, Leader of Indian Tamils of Sri Lanka are notable persons outside Tamilnadu.
  • Late C.Ramu, political leader in Kottampatty, Melur taluk known for the development of DMK Party in Madurai district.

Current Status[संपादन]

Although a great many of the members are still agriculturalists, they can be found in all walks of life such as doctors, engineers, entrepreneurs, politicians and civil servants. Large number of people from the community are in the National Armed Forces of India. A significant portion also serve in the Tamilnadu Police Department.

See also[संपादन]

बाह्य दुवे[संपादन]

References[संपादन]

  1. a b c Thenpandi Singam by M. Karunanidhi
  2. ^ கள்ளர் சரித்திரம் - நாவலர் பண்டித ந மு வேங்கடசாமி நாட்டார்
  3. ^ |दुवा=http://www.krishnagiri.tn.nic.in/profile.htm
  4. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=0tX4wzIUY3QC&pg=PA33&dq=kallar+palai+tinai&lr=&cd=2#v=onepage&q=kallar%20palai%20tinai&f=false
  5. ^ "கள்ளர்". ta.wikipedia.org. 
  6. ^ "South Indian Inscription". www.whatisindia.com. 
  7. ^ "South Indian Inscription". www.whatisindia.com. 
  8. ^ "South IndianInscription". www.whatisindia.com. 
  9. ^ "South Indian Inscription". www.whatisindia.com. 
  10. ^ Rajarajan Meikirthigal By Pandarathar
  11. ^ KalvethugalKurum Unmaigal By Pandarathar
  12. ^ "South Indian Inscriptions Volume13". Archaeological Survey of India. 2008-11-09 रोजी पाहिले. 
  13. ^ "கள்ளர் சரித்திரம்". www.thinnai.com. 
  14. a b கள்ளர் பட்டப்பெயர்கள் - Pulamai Venkathachala Vanniyar
  15. ^ Kallar Marabinar in Pattapeyargal Oru Varalarru parvai, Pattangattiyar (Pattukati) By Sivabatham
  16. ^ "Kallar". www.kallarsangam.com. 
  17. ^ "Kallar (கள்ளர்)". kallar.weebly.com.