इलामो द्राविडीयन भाषाकुळ
|ह्या लेखाचा/विभागाचा इंग्रजी किंवा अमराठी भाषेतून मराठी भाषेत भाषांतर करावयाचे बाकी आहे. अनुवाद करण्यास आपलाही सहयोग हवा आहे. ऑनलाईन शब्दकोश आणि इतर सहाय्या करिता भाषांतर प्रकल्पास भेट द्या.
इलामो द्राविडीयन भाषाकुटुंब
The Elamo-Dravidian languages are a hypothesised language family which includes the living Dravidian languages of India, in addition to the extinct Elamite language of ancient Elam, in what is now southwestern Iran. Linguist David McAlpin has been a chief proponent of the Elamo-Dravidian Hypothesis. The Elamo-Dravidian hypothesis claims that the extinct Harappan language (the language or languages of the Indus Valley Civilization) may be part of the same family.
McAlpin (1975) identified several similarities between Elamite and Dravidian. According to McAlpin, 20% of Dravidian and Elamite vocabulary are cognates; a further 12% are probable cognates. Elamite and Dravidian possess similar second-person pronouns and parallel case endings. They have identical derivatives, abstract nouns, and the same verb stem+tense marker+personal ending structure. Both have two positive tenses, a "past" and a "non-past".
However modern linguists point out the probability of commonalities being found even between two disparate languages. This understanding has led to specific criticisms of the Elamo-Dravidian Hypothesis.
Georgiy Starostin criticized McAlpin's proposed morphological correspondences between Elamite and Dravidian as no closer than correspondences with other nearby language families. Proto-Nostratic was already hypothesized to be an ancestor of Dravidian, and Václav Blažek had proposed that Elamite was related to Afroasiatic, so Starostin performed a lexicostatistical comparison using the Swadesh list between Elamite, Proto-Afroasiatic, Proto-Nostratic (a version of Nostratic not including Afroasiatic, similar to Joseph Greenberg's Eurasiatic), and Proto-Sino-Caucasian. He concluded that Elamite is related to Afroasiatic and Nostratic but not a member of either, with Sino-Caucasian being more distant from those three.
In addition, the Dravidian Brahui language of Baluchistan, which McAlpin supposed to be the link between Elamite and the Central Indian Dravidian languages (Elst (1999)), has been suggested by J.H. Elfenbein to be a late, c. 1000 year old immigrant from Central India. As such, it cannot reflect a remnant of a Dravidian language speaking Indus population.
Apart from the linguistic similarities, the Elamo-Dravidian Hypothesis rests on the claim that agriculture spread from the Near East to the Indus Valley region via Elam. This would suggest that agriculturalists brought a new language as well as farming from Elam. Supporting ethno-botanical data include the Near Eastern origin and name of wheat (D. Fuller). Later evidence of extensive trade between Elam and the Indus Valley Civilization suggests ongoing links between the two regions.
The disjunct distribution of living Dravidian languages, concentrated mostly in southern India but with isolated pockets in South Eastern Iran, Southern Afghanistan and Pakistan (Brahui) and in northeast India (Kurukh, Malto), suggests to some a wider past distribution of the Dravidian languages. The Indo-European languages of modern India and Pakistan were later arrivals in the Indo-Gangetic plain, leaving isolated islands of the older Dravidian languages in the surrounding mountains.These northern Dravidian languages however arrived in their present locations only around 1000 CE (Elfenbein 1987).
A variety of Dravidian loan words (i.e., phalam- ripe fruit, khala- threshing floor) in Vedic Sanskrit suggests that the two languages existed for a time in proximity. Retroflex consonants, which exist in Vedic Sanskrit and Dravidian but do not exist in Iranian or European languages could suggest a Dravidian substratum or adstratum in Vedic Sanskrit, which however could derive from other northwestern languages (such as Burushaski) as well.
Proponents of the hypothesis claims similarities between the early हडप्पा लिपी, which has not been deciphered, and early (Proto-)Elamite script that, however, is hardly even recognized as such so far. Some who claim to have (partially) deciphered the Harappan script, including Asko Parpola and Walter A. Fairservis Jr., suggest that the Harappans spoke a Dravidian language, while others, for instance S.R. Rao, suggest that the Harappan script represents an Indo-European language, similar to Sanskrit.
- David McAlpin, "Toward Proto-Elamo-Dravidian", Language vol. 50 no. 1 (1974); David McAlpin: "Elamite and Dravidian, Further Evidence of Relationships", Current Anthropology vol. 16 no. 1 (1975); David McAlpin: "Linguistic prehistory: the Dravidian situation", in Madhav M. Deshpande and Peter Edwin Hook: Aryan and Non-Aryan in India, Center for South and Southeast Asian Studies, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (1979); David McAlpin, "Proto-Elamo-Dravidian: The Evidence and its Implications", Transactions of the American Philosophical Society vol. 71 pt. 3, (1981)
- Foundations of statistical natural language processing by Christopher D. Manning, Hinrich Schütze; McAlpin, et al.
- Comment on David W. McAlpin's "Elamite and Dravidian: Further Evidence of Relationship". (This includes discussions by M.B. Emeneau, W.H. Jacobsen, F.B.J. Kuiper, H.H.Paper, E. Reiner, R. Stopa, F. Vallat, R.W. Wescott, and a reply by McAlpin), Current Anthropology 16, (1975), pp. 105-115.
- G.A.Starostin, On the genetic affiliation of the Elamite language
- Elfenbein, J.H.A "Periplous of the Brahui problem". Studia Iranica 16, 1987, 215-233
- Walter A. Fairservis Jr., The Harappan Civilization And Its Writing: A Model For The Decipherment Of The Indus Script, Brill, Leiden (1992); Walter A. Fairservis Jr.: "The script of the Indus Valley Civilization", Scientific American (1985); Asko Parpola, Deciphering the Indus Script, (Cambridge University Press, 1994); Asko Parpola: "Interpreting the Indus Script", in A.H. Dani: Indus Civilisation: New Perspectives, Quaid-i-Azam University, Centre for the Study of the Civilization of Central Asia, Islamabad (1981)
- S.R. Rao: Dawn and Devolution of the Indus Civilisation, Aditya Prakashan, Delhi (1992)