बक्षिसी

विकिपीडिया, मुक्‍त ज्ञानकोशातून
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ह्या लेखाचा/विभागाचा इंग्रजी किंवा अमराठी भाषेतून मराठी भाषेत भाषांतर करावयाचे बाकी आहे. अनुवाद करण्यास आपलाही सहयोग हवा आहे. ऑनलाईन शब्दकोश आणि इतर सहाय्या करिता भाषांतर प्रकल्पास भेट द्या.


साचा:About

हॉटेलमध्ये जेवणानंतर टेबलावर पैसे ठेवणे ही सर्वसाधारण बक्षिसी देण्याची पद्धत रुढ आहे.

A tip (also called a gratuity) is a voluntary extra payment made to certain service sector workers in addition to the advertised price of the transaction. Such payments and their size are a matter of social custom. Tipping varies among cultures and by service industry. Though by definition a tip is never legally required, and its amount is at the discretion of the patron being served, in some circumstances failing to give an adequate tip when one is expected may be considered very miserly, a violation of etiquette, or unethical. In some other cultures or situations, giving a tip is not expected and offering one would be considered condescending or demeaning. In some circumstances (such as tipping government workers), tipping is illegal.[१]


Etymology[संपादन]

There are common inaccurate claims[२] that "tip" (or "tips") is an acronym for a phrase such as "To Insure Prompt Service", "To Insure Proper Service", "To Improve Performance", or "To Insure Promptness." These false backronyms contradict the verifiable etymology, as follows.

According to the ऑक्सफर्ड इंग्लिश डिक्शनरी, the word tip originated as a slang term, and its etymology is unclear. The term in the sense of "to give a gratuity" first appeared in the 18th century. It derived from an earlier sense of tip, meaning "to give; to hand, pass", which originated in the rogues' cant in the 17th century. This sense may have derived from the 16th-century tip meaning "to strike or hit smartly but lightly" (which may have derived from the Low German tippen, "to tap"), but this derivation is "very uncertain".[३]

Though there is no compelling evidence that the modern English usage is derived hence, some claim that "tip" originated from a concept in Judaism, in that it was a chiyuv (obligation) for a seller to "tip the scales" in favor of the customer. The Torah says, "Nosen lo girumov (Give to him a tip)." For example, if your customer has asked for three pounds of onions, you should measure out the three pounds plus one extra onion, tipping the scale in his favor.[४]

Circumstances of tipping[संपादन]

In countries where tipping is expected (the United States for example), complicated unofficial standards and customs have developed over the exact percentage to tip, and what should and should not be included in this calculation. In other cultures where tipping exists it is more flexible and no specific assumptions of the tip amount exist.

Tipping is intended to improve service, as workers will receive higher tips from satisfied customers. In the United States, employers underpay workers with the expectation that tips will make up the difference. The practice of tipping is controversial, with numerous criticisms. Some have criticized the inherent "social awkwardness" in transactions that involve tipping, the inconsistency of tipping for some services but not similar ones, and the irrationality of basing tips on price, rather than the amount and quality of service (a customer pays a larger tip for lobster than a hamburger, for example).[५]

Tipping is not expected when a fee is explicitly charged for the service. For example, a service charge for all patrons that is automatically added to the tab with no tipping is very common in Brazil, but it's never mandatory to pay this charge.[६] Bribery and corruption are sometimes disguised as tipping. In some places, police officers and other civil servants openly solicit tips, gifts and dubious fees using a variety of local euphemisms. For example, a traffic policeman in Mexico might ask a commuter to buy him a "refresco" (soft drink), while a Nigerian officer might expect "a little something for the weekend."[७]

Tipping by region[संपादन]

अर्विन्द् === आशिया ===

चीन[संपादन]

In चीन, traditionally there is no tipping. However, hotels that routinely serve foreign tourists may allow tipping. An example would be tour guides and associated drivers.[८]

तैवान[संपादन]

In Taiwan tipping is rare except when a customer uses a porter at an airport, which is usually 50 New Taiwan Dollars per luggage, or wants to show appreciation for exceptional service. Some restaurants and hotels already add 10% service charges.[९] The service charge is generally applied at restaurants where the waiter is expected by the employer to pay a great deal of attention to the customer, or if the meal requires assistance from the wait staff (as in some barbecue restaurants).[ संदर्भ हवा ]

अॉस्ट्े्लिया[संपादन]

Casinos in Australia generally prohibit tipping of gaming staff, as it is considered bribery. (For example, in the state of Tasmania, the Gaming Control Act 1993 states in section 56 (4): "it is a condition of every special employee's licence that the special employee must not solicit or accept any gratuity, consideration or other benefit from a patron in a gaming area.")[१०]

Central and South America[संपादन]

बोलिविया[संपादन]

Service charges are included with the bill. Still, a small tip, around 5% or so, is sometimes given, and is considered polite.[११]

पॅरॅगुवे[संपादन]

Service charges are included with the bill, and tipping is uncommon.[११]

युरोप[संपादन]

In the European Union and elsewhere in Europe, tipping practices vary from region to region, although, in general, tipping is not considered obligatory.[ संदर्भ हवा ]

In many European countries it is a legal requirement to quote prices including all taxes. The expectation when a price is advertised, is to pay that amount and no more. Restaurants post a menu outside including prices. If a service charge is to be added, this is usually indicated on the menu. If an establishment attempts to charge more than was shown on a menu, for example by adding a service charge which was not clearly posted, or by adding a tip by default, this is likely to be seen as an attempt to overcharge the customer.[ संदर्भ हवा ]

आइसलँड[संपादन]

In Iceland tipping (þjórfé, lit. "drink money") is rare. Service charges are generally included in the bill.[११]

आईरलँड[संपादन]

Tipping is not a general habit except in taxis, hairdressers/barbers, and restaurants with table service. The same general rules apply as in the United Kingdom. For example, it is not customory to tip in bars or for any over-the-counter service, but waiters in pubs are usually tipped a token amount.[ संदर्भ हवा ]

Although it has been cited that tipping for taxis is typical[१२], it is not common in practice. Commonly people will round-up the fare to the nearest note to avoid fumbling for small change(for example, hand over €5.00 for a fare of €4.50)

In Ireland it is not customary to tip a percentage of the total bill, a few small coins is generally considered quite polite. Like most of Europe it is common to round up to the nearest note, (i.e. paying €30 for a bill of €26).

रोमानिया[संपादन]

The tip is usually 10% of the bill and is expected in restaurants[१३], coffee shops, taxi[१३], hair dresser. [ संदर्भ हवा ]

सोलवेनिया[संपादन]

Tipping is not customary in Slovenia and traditionally it is almost never done. In recent times, however, high-tourist areas have begun to accept tips, which are welcomed but not obligatory. In such cases, the amount is typically 10 percent, but may range higher in exceptional circumstances.[१४][१५]

स्पेन[संपादन]

Tipping ("propina") is not customary and not generally considered mandatory in Spain. In restaurants the amount of the tip, if any, depends mainly on the economic status of the customer and on the kind of locale, higher percentages being expected in upscale restaurants. In bars and small restaurants, Spaniards sometimes leave as a tip the small change left in their plate after paying a bill.[१६][१७] Outside the restaurant business, some service providers, such as taxicab drivers, hairdressers and hotel personnel may expect a tipping an upscale setting. In 2007 the Minister of Economy Pedro Solbes put the blame on the excessive tipping for the increase of the inflation.[१८]

स्विझरलँड[संपादन]

Tipping is expected, though not mandatory in Switzerland, but a tip of 10% would be considered "weird". For small amounts, round up to the next franc, in a restaurant a few francs at max (1-1.5%).

तुर्की[संपादन]

In Turkey, tipping, or bahşiş (lit. gift, from Persian word بخشش) is usually optional and not customary in many places. However, a tip of 5-10% is expected in restaurants, which is usually paid by "leaving the change". Cab drivers usually don't expect to be tipped, though, rounding the fare upward would be appreciated. In hotels, a small change as a tip would be enough make most porters happy.[१९] Tipping or "leaving the change" in shops or for fixed-price services is seen as an insult.[ संदर्भ हवा ]

युनायटेड किगंडम[संपादन]

Tipping throughout the UK is usually expected at restaurants (but not always given) and sometimes taxis. The practice is also relatively common for some other services, such as hairdressers.[ संदर्भ हवा ]

It is a legal requirement to post prices including any taxes and other charges. Additional service charges at restaurants are unusual. Where these occur, it is legal to refuse to pay the service charge if you believe the service was inadequate.[२०]

यु.के मधील कर पद्धती[संपादन]

A tronc is an arrangement for the pooling and distribution to employees of tips, gratuities and/or service charges in the hotel and catering trade. The person who distributes monies from the tronc is known as the troncmaster. When a tronc exists in the UK, responsibility for operating PAYE on the distribution may lie with the troncmaster rather than the employer.[२१] (The word 'tronc' has its origins in the French for collecting box.) In June 2008, the Employment Appeals Tribunal ruled that income from a tronc cannot be counted when assessing whether a wage or salary meets the national minimum wage, although this decision is currently being appealed.[२२]

उत्तर अमेरीका[संपादन]

कॅनडा[संपादन]

Tipping in Canada is similar to that in the United States due to the close cultural nature of the two countries. Waiters in Canada typically receive about 15% on the after-tax total, although anywhere from 15-20% is within the average range.[ संदर्भ हवा ]

Quebec and Ontario allow employers to pay lower minimum wages to workers who would reasonably be expected to be receiving tips.[२३] In Ontario, the minimum wage is $9.50 per hour, with exceptions for: Students under 18 years old and employed for not more than 28 hours a week, who are paid $8.20 per hour; and liquor servers, who are paid $7.60 per hour.[२४]

Workers who receive tips are legally required to report the income to the Canada Revenue Agency and pay income tax on it. However, many workers have been known to report no income from tips at all or, perhaps more commonly, to "lowball" the figure. In response, the CRA has vowed that it will closely check the tax returns of individuals that it would reasonably expect to be receiving tips to ensure that the tips are reported, and that the amount reported on the returns is realistic.[२५]

युनायटेड स्टेटस (अमेरीका)[संपादन]

Tipping is a widely practiced social custom in the United States. Standards vary, but generally, gratuities are given as a reward for services rendered in the restaurant, bar, hotel, and taxi industries. The amount of a tip is at the discretion of the person receiving the service. For most of the 20th century it was considered inappropriate for the owner of an establishment to accept any tips, and while this is still considered the standard etiquette rule, the practice has mostly vanished as tipping has become ubiquitous for certain types of services.[२६] Tipping is done only by the host of a party. Guests should never leave tips as this breaches the host's hospitality. This etiquette applies to bar service at weddings and any other event where one is a guest as well. The host should provide appropriate tips to workers at the end of an event.

Tipping in the United States is so common and expected in some cases that in many service establishments, such as hair salons and restaurants, customers have actually been asked by employees to give a tip, or have been verbally abused by staff for "stiffing" them, even though such behavior on the part of the staff is considered completely contrary to proper etiquette and standard professional business practices.[२७][२८][२९]

Laws in the states of Alaska, California, Minnesota, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington require all employees to be paid at least minimum wage, yet most wait staff still expect to be given a 15-20% tip. Elsewhere, wage laws allow employers to credit an amount of earned tips against the minimum wage, allowing them to pay tipped employees less than minimum wage. As of September 2009, this reduction can be as low as $1.45 per hour in West Virginia, or as high as 100% in Virginia, reducing potential wages to $5.80 or $0 per hour, respectively. Which employees may have their wages reduced varies as well. The Fair Labor Standards Act defines a tipped employee as anyone receiving more than $30 per month in tips, although several states set a lower $20 per month threshold.[३०]

Restaurants[संपादन]

Tipping is customary in restaurants offering traditional table service. While the amount of a tip is at the discretion of the patron, the customary tip until the 1980s was from 10 to 15 percent of the total bill before tax, for good to excellent service, and since then has risen to 15 to 20 percent before tax.[३१][३२] Tipping percentages may fall when the economy is poor.[३३] Waiters, on average, fail to report at least 40 percent of their tips according to the IRS.[३४]

When a server has not adequately addressed issues a customer has with service, the patron may choose to speak with management to have the problems corrected before considering reducing the tip. In extreme cases of inferior service, the patron may choose not to leave a tip. Though not considered a standard business practice and contrary to proper etiquette, some dissatisfied customers go so far as to leave a very small tip, such as one penny, as a personal insult.

For large groups, such as six or more, many restaurants add a standard predetermined service charge (~18%) in lieu of the gratuity.[३५] Reputable restaurants post their policy on a sign or the menu, or require servers to inform their patrons of such charges before they order. This charge can be verified by the customer on the bill to avoid tipping in addition to the service charge. A service charge is also taxed by the IRS. Customers have a right to negotiate, alter, or refuse charges which were hidden until the bill arrived.[३६] A customer may choose to include an extra tip for the server over and above the service charge, or, if service to a large party is poor, to negotiate an alternate service charge with management.

While some advocate increasing tipping for the benefit of employees who lack direct customer contact, such as kitchen, bar, and bus staff, the funds may or may not be used for that purpose. Some service worker advocacy groups point out that some restaurants have agreements among the staff requiring servers to "tip out," i.e. give a portion of their tips to members of the support staff,[३७] while anti-tipping groups point out that some establishments allocate a percent of the bill (such as 3%) directly to the support staff from the receipts rather than from tips.[३८]

Many traditional restaurants offer carry-out ("pick-up," "take-out, or "curbside") service, and standards for tipping for such services vary. Tipping is not traditionally required for non-table services. Some advocate optional tipping, and others say 5% is appropriate,[३९] especially for exceptional service or difficult orders.

Tipping at fast food restaurants and coffeehouses that do not offer table service is not necessary, despite the common proliferation of tip jars (a.k.a. guilt cans), which are considered inappropriate by some.[४०] Such tips are often divided amongst the on-shift staff (except for salaried management), whether or not such staff directly contributed to a patron's order.

Taxicabs[संपादन]

Most U.S. guides recommend 15% of the fare, more for extra services or heavy luggage.[३७][४१][४२]

Government employees[संपादन]

Under federal law it is considered bribery to tip federal government employees. However, they are permitted to receive unsolicited non-monetary gifts less than or equal to $20.00.[१]

Other[संपादन]

Many retailers forbid their employees to accept tips, although this is illegal in some states, such as California, where the law states "tips are the property of whom they are given, and employers are not allowed to require employees to refuse, give, or share their tips with anyone."[४३]

Taxation[संपादन]

In some jurisdictions, tipped workers qualify for a lower statutory minimum wage from the employer, and therefore may supplement deficient pay with tips. For example, the United States Internal Revenue Service (IRS) requires restaurant employers to ensure that the total tip income (both cash and tips added to credit or debit card receipts) reported to them during any pay period is at least eight percent of their total receipts for that period.[४४] If the reported total is below eight percent, employers must allocate as income the difference between the actual tip income reported and eight percent of gross receipts.[४५] Legally, tips should be reported as income for tax purposes by the recipient.[४६] Form 4070 is provided by the IRS for daily tracking of tip income and reporting to employers by the 10th of the month for the previous month.

See also[संपादन]

References[संपादन]

  1. १.० १.१ "5CFR2635.204". Retrieved 2009-05-28.
  2. http://www.snopes.com/language/acronyms/tip.asp
  3. "tip, v.4" ऑक्सफर्ड इंग्लिश डिक्शनरी. 2nd ed. 1989. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0198611862.
  4. "Question 85: Extra Food in a Restaurant." Honesty, torah.org.
  5. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/programmes/from_our_own_correspondent/7927983.stm
  6. Bly, Laura. "The tipping point: Will service charges replace voluntary gratuities?", USA Today. 2005-08-25.
  7. ""The Ettiquette of Bribery: How to Grease a Palm"". 2007-01-02 रोजी तपासले. 
  8. A few tips on handling gratuities worldwide
  9. Taiwan Government Information Office."Chapter 20: Tourism". Taiwan Yearbook 2006.
  10. Tasmanian Gaming Control Act 1993
  11. ११.० ११.१ ११.२ DHL. "Cultural Tips." How to Ship Internationally.
  12. Rick Steves' Ireland 2008
  13. १३.० १३.१ "[१]"
  14. "Inside Slovenia: Tipping & Etiquette." TripAdvisor. Retrieved 2007-04-22.
  15. "Slovenia Travel Information: Fact Sheet." Concierge.com. Retrieved 2007-04-22.
  16. "[२] El Economista
  17. "[३] 20 Minutos
  18. "[४] Solbes achaca la inflación a que no interiorizamos lo que significa un euro" El Mundo, 12/15/2007
  19. "Tipping in Turkey"
  20. Restaurant rights: the bill "if the service has been poor. You are entitled to reduce it by the amount shown to be the service charge."
  21. Tronc Schemes
  22. Worthing Today
  23. "Minimum Wage Rates Across Canada." Manitoba Labour and Immigration.
  24. "Ontario's Minimum Wage Rises Tomorrow." Ontario's Minimum Wage Rises Tomorrow.
  25. McCracken, D.L. "Revenue Canada to Tax Wait Staff's Tips." HalifaxLive.com. 2005-05-23.
  26. http://archive.is/20120730023220/www.buffalonews.com/opinion/columns/missmanners/story/714022.html
  27. The Mechanics of Tipping US-style (BBC News)
  28. To tip or not to tip?
  29. Ask a waiter - the tipping point
  30. Minimum Wages for Tipped Employees. Department of Labor. 2009-09-01 रोजी पाहिले.
  31. http://www.bridgeandtunnelclub.com/cookery/them/askawaiter/20061010_tip/index.htm#part2
  32. How much to tip at a restaurant
  33. Tipping and the Recession - Diner’s Journal Blog - NYTimes.com
  34. IRS Bulletin No. 2002–47, November 25, 2002, presents some examples of tipping discrepancies that led to some investigations.
  35. "The tipping point: Will service charges replace voluntary gratuities?", USA Today. 2005-08-25.
  36. The New York Times - A Mandatory Gratuity Is Just a Tip, and Thus Not Mandatory, a Prosecutor Says
  37. ३७.० ३७.१ "Tipping Standards (United States)", Tip20! Service Industry Resource.
  38. TippingSucks.com
  39. Karen Fernau, "Should you tip for takeout? Sometimes."[मृत दुवा] The Arizona Republic, 6-16-2004.
  40. Emily Post Institute—Tip Jar Survey Results
  41. The Original Tipping Page. Retrieved on 2008-08-29.
  42. "Tipping in America: How to Tip in the U.S.", Living American.com. Retrieved on 2008-08-29.
  43. California Labor Code Section 350-356. July 29, 2009 रोजी पाहिले.
  44. Publication 1244, Employee's Daily Record of Tips and Report to Employe. Internal Revenue. 2009-07-06 रोजी पाहिले.
  45. Internal Revenue Service. "Reporting Tip Income." Restaurant Tax Tips.
  46. Internal Revenue Service. Publication 1872. "Tips on Tips: A Guide to Tip Income Reporting for Employees in the Food and Beverage Industry."

बाह्य दुवे[संपादन]