फिफा जागतिक क्रमवारी

विकिपीडिया, मुक्‍त ज्ञानकोशातून
(फिफा गुणवत्ता क्रमांक या पानावरून पुनर्निर्देशित)
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ह्या लेखाचा/विभागाचा इंग्रजी किंवा अमराठी भाषेतून मराठी भाषेत भाषांतर करावयाचे बाकी आहे. अनुवाद करण्यास आपलाही सहयोग हवा आहे. ऑनलाईन शब्दकोश आणि इतर सहाय्या करिता भाषांतर प्रकल्पास भेट द्या.



गुणवत्ता क्रमांक

Top 30 Rankings as of September 2007[१]
Rank Team Points Federation
1 इटलीचा ध्वज इटली 1488 युएफा
2 आर्जेन्टिनाचा ध्वज आर्जेन्टिना 1451 कॉन्मेबॉल
3 ब्राझीलचा ध्वज ब्राझील 1444 कॉन्मेबॉल
4 जर्मनीचा ध्वज जर्मनी 1330 युएफा
5 Flag of the Netherlands नेदरलँड्स 1246 युएफा
6 फ्रान्सचा ध्वज फ्रान्स 1220 युएफा
7 स्पेनचा ध्वज स्पेन 1178 युएफा
8 पोर्तुगालचा ध्वज पोर्तुगाल 1169 युएफा
9 इंग्लंडचा ध्वज इंग्लंड 1165 युएफा
10 क्रोएशियाचा ध्वज क्रोएशिया 1151 युएफा
11 Flag of the Czech Republic चेक प्रजासत्ताक 1082 युएफा
12 रोमेनियाचा ध्वज रोमेनिया 1037 युएफा
13 मेक्सिकोचा ध्वज मेक्सिको 1026 कॉन्ककॅफ
14 स्कॉटलंडचा ध्वज स्कॉटलंड 1025 युएफा
15 ग्रीसचा ध्वज ग्रीस 940 युएफा
16 पोलंडचा ध्वज पोलंड 926 युएफा
17 युक्रेनचा ध्वज युक्रेन 900 युएफा
18 Flag of the United States अमेरिका 897 कॉन्ककॅफ
19 उरुग्वेचा ध्वज उरुग्वे 889 कॉन्मेबॉल
20 स्वीडनचा ध्वज स्वीडन 888 युएफा
21 तुर्कस्तानचा ध्वज तुर्कस्तान 883 युएफा
22 सर्बियाचा ध्वज सर्बिया 877 युएफा
23 नायजेरियाचा ध्वज नायजेरिया 867 CAF
24 कोलंबियाचा ध्वज कोलंबिया 862 कॉन्मेबॉल
25 कामेरूनचा ध्वज कामेरून 856 CAF
26 रशियाचा ध्वज रशिया 851 युएफा
27 कोत द'ईवोआरचा ध्वज कोत द'ईवोआर 806 CAF
28 डेन्मार्कचा ध्वज डेन्मार्क 794 युएफा
29 नॉर्वेचा ध्वज नॉर्वे 763 युएफा
30 गिनीचा ध्वज गिनी 752 CAF
This article is about the men's rankings. For women's rankings, see FIFA Women's World Rankings.

The FIFA World Rankings is a ranking system for men's national teams in football (soccer). The teams of the member nations of FIFA (Fédération Internationale de Football Association), football's world governing body, are ranked based on their game results with the most successful teams being ranked highest. A point system is used, with points being awarded based on the results of FIFA-recognized international matches. Under the existing system, rankings are based on a team's performance over the last four years, with more recent results and more significant matches being more heavily weighted to help reflect the current competitive state of a team. The ranking system was most recently revamped after the 2006 World Cup, with the first edition of the new series of rankings issued on July 12, 2006. The most significant change is that the rankings are now based on results over the previous four years instead of the previous eight years. The change is perceived to respond to criticisms that the rankings do not effectively reflect the relative strengths of the national teams. (See section Criticism).

Other alternative systems have been devised, such as the World Football Elo Ratings, based on the Elo rating system used in chess, ranking teams on an all time basis. The UFWC (Unofficial Football World Championships) ranks teams on the number of times they have defended the Unofficial Football World Championship, an award devised solely for that purpose.

History[संपादन]

FIFA World Ranking Leaders
साचा:FIFA World Ranking leaders

In December 1992, FIFA first published a listing in rank order of its member associations provide a basis for comparison of the relative strengths of these teams. From the following August, with sponsorship from Coca-Cola, this list was more frequently updated, to be published most months.[२] Significant changes were implemented in 1999 and again in 2006, as a reaction to criticisms of the system.[३] Membership of FIFA has expanded from 167 to 208 since the rankings began.

1999 update[संपादन]

When the rankings were initially introduced, a team received one point for a draw and three for a victory in FIFA-recognized matches - much the same as a traditional league scoring system. This was a quite simplistic approach, however, and FIFA quickly realised that there were many factors affecting international matches. In order to meet the objective of fairly and accurately comparing the relative strengths of various national sides, the system was updated. The major changes were as follows:

  • the point ranking was scaled up by a factor of ten
  • the method of calculation was changed to take into account factors including:
    • the number of goals scored or conceded
    • whether the match was played at home or away
    • the importance of a match or competition
    • regional strength
  • a fixed number of points were no longer necessarily awarded for a victory or a draw
  • match losers were able to earn points

Two new awards were introduced as part of the system:

The changes made the ranking system more complex, but helped improve its accuracy by making it more comprehensive.

2006 ranking system update[संपादन]

FIFA announced that the ranking system would be updated following the 2006 World Cup. The evaluation period was cut from eight to four years, and a simpler method of calculation is now used to determine rankings.[४] Goals scored and home or away advantage are no longer taken into account, and other aspects of the calculations, including the importance attributed to different types of match, have been revised. The first set of revised rankings — and the calculation methodology — were announced on 12 July 2006.

This change is rooted at least in part in widespread criticism of the previous ranking system. Many football enthusiasts felt it was inaccurate — especially when compared to other ranking systems — and that it was not sufficiently responsive to changes in the performance of individual teams. The recent and unexpectedly high rankings of teams from the Czech Republic and the United States were generally met with scepticism and negatively affected the credibility of the system in the eyes of many followers of the sport. The poor showings and early exit of these two sides from the 2006 World Cup competition appear to lend some credence to the criticism.

Rank leaders[संपादन]

When the system was introduced, Germany debuted as the top ranked team following their extended period of dominance in which they had reached the three previous FIFA World Cup finals, winning one of them. Brazil took the lead in the run up to the 1994 FIFA World Cup after winning eight and losing only one of nine qualification matches, while on the way scoring twenty goals and conceding just four. Italy then led for a short time on the back of their own equally successful World Cup qualifying campaign, after which the top place was re-claimed by Germany.

Brazil's success in their lengthy qualifying campaign returned them to the lead for a brief period. Germany led again during the 1994 World Cup, until Brazil’s victory in that competition gave them a large lead that would stand up for nearly seven years, until they were surpassed by a strong France team that captured both the 1998 FIFA World Cup and the 2000 European Football Championship. Success at the 2002 FIFA World Cup restored Brazil to the top position, where they remained until February 2007, when Italy returned to the top for the first time since 1993 following their 2006 FIFA World Cup win in Germany. Just one month later, Argentina replaced them, reaching the top for the first time, but Italy regained its place in April. After winning the Copa America 2007 in July, Brazil returned to the top.

Uses of the rankings[संपादन]

The rankings are used by FIFA to rank the progression and current ability of the national football teams of its member nations. The data is used by FIFA for very few things, as FIFA says they are only to create "a reliable measure for comparing national A-teams".[२] However, one task they are used for is as part of the calculation to seed competitions.[५] The rankings are also used to determine the winners of the two annual awards national teams receive on the basis of their performance in the rankings.

Criticism[संपादन]

Since their introduction in 1993, the FIFA World Rankings have been the matter of much debate, particularly regarding the calculation procedure and the resulting disparity between generally perceived quality and world ranking of some teams. For example Norway was ranked second in October 1993 and July-August 1995,[६] and the United States reached fourth, to the surprise of even their own players.[७]

Among the criticisms [८] is that prior to July 2006 the rankings considered the performances of teams over an eight year period, and that teams' ranking positions did not correlate to their recent performances.[६] This criticism should lessen with the introduction of a new formula, reflecting results over a four year period, from July 2006.

Another problem of the rankings is that a team that directly qualifies for a major tournament will not have the chance to gather points by playing competitive qualifying matches, but can only play friendly matches which are weighted lower.

The perceived flaws in the FIFA system have led to the creation of a number of alternative rankings from football statisticians [६] including the World Football Elo Ratings and the rec.sport.soccer Statistics Foundation rankings.

Current calculation method[संपादन]

After the 2006 FIFA World Cup, a revised calculation procedure for the FIFA rankings was introduced; it is a significantly simplified procedure. The new rankings were compiled in response to criticism from the media.[२] Meetings were attended by FIFA staff and external experts and a large amount of research was conducted by this group, resulting in the new ranking system.[२] The new system was confirmed in Leipzig on 7 December 2005 by a committee of FIFA executives. Notable changes include the dropping of the home or away advantage and number of goals from the calculation, and the simplification of many aspects of the system.

The system, like the previous ones, is extremely similar to that of a league, though with changes made to ensure that it is still representative of the teams' performance despite playing differing numbers of matches per annum, and the differing strength of opposition that teams have to face. The factors taken into account are as follows:

  • Match result
  • Match status
  • Opposition strength
  • Regional strength

Teams' actual scores are a result of the average points gained over each calendar year; matches from the previous four years are considered, with more weight being given to recent ones. Teams must have played at least 5 matches within the last twelve months to gain ranking points.

Win, draw or defeat[संपादन]

In previous years a complicated system of points allocation was used, depending on how strong the opponent was, and how large the loss margin, which allowed weaker losing teams to gain points when playing a much stronger opposition, if they managed to put up a decent match. With the new system, the points allocation is simpler: three points for a win, one point for a draw, and zero points for a loss, in line with most league systems around the world.

In the event of a match being decided by a penalty shootout, the winning team receives two points, and the losing team one point.

Result Points
Win (no penalty shootout) 3
Draw 1
Loss (no penalty shootout) 0
Win (penalty shootout) 2
Loss (penalty shootout) 1

Match status[संपादन]

Different matches have different importance to teams, and FIFA has tried to respect this by using a weighting system, where the most significant matches are in the World Cup finals [९], and the lowest weighted are friendly matches. FIFA states that it wishes to recognise that friendlies are still important, since they make up half of the competitive matches counted in the rankings.[१०] FIFA also stated, however, that it did not plan to make any adjustment for teams that qualify directly for major tournaments.[११]

The match status multipliers are as follows:

Match status Multiplier
Friendly match x 1.0
FIFA World Cup and Continental cup qualifiers x 2.5
Continental cup and Confederations Cup finals x 3.0
World Cup finals match x 4.0

Opponent strength[संपादन]

Obviously, a win against a very highly ranked opponent is a considerably greater achievement than a win against a low-rated opponent, so the strength of the opposing team is a factor.

The new system uses an opposition strength factor based on team rankings. The previous system was based on points difference.

The formula used is:

Opposition\ strength\ multiplier\ = \frac{200-ranking\ position}{100}

Teams ranked 150th and below are assigned the minimum multiplier of 0.50.

  • Example 1: the opposition team is currently ranked 8th in the world:

\frac{200-8}{100}=1.92

so the opposition strength multiplier is 1.92
  • Example 2: the opposition team is currently ranked 125th in the world:

\frac{200-125}{100}=0.75

so the opposition strength multiplier is 0.75
  • Example 3: the opposition team is currently ranked 188th in the world:

Below 150th, so the opposition strength multiplier is the minimum 0.50

Regional strength[संपादन]

In addition to the opposition strength multiplier, FIFA considers the relative strength of entire confederations in the calculation. Each confederation is assigned a weighting between 0.85 and 1.0, based on the relative performance of the confederations in qualifying for the last three World Cups. After the 2006 World Cup, the weightings are:

Confederation Weighting
युएफा (Europe) 1.00
कॉन्मेबॉल (South America) 0.98
AFC (Asia) 0.85
CAF (Africa) 0.85
कॉन्ककॅफ (North and Central America and Caribbean) 0.85
OFC (Oceania) 0.85

The multiplier used in the calculation is the average of the regional strength weighting of the two teams:

Regional\ strength\ multiplier\ = \frac{Team\ \mathit{1}\ regional\ weighting\ +\ Team\ \mathit{2}\ regional\ weighting}{2}

Assessment period[संपादन]

Matches played over the last four years (48 months) are included in the calculation, but there is a weighting to put more emphasis on recent results. Previously an eight year period was used. The date weighting is as follows:

Date of match Multiplier
Within the last 12 months x 1.0
12–24 months ago x 0.5
24–36 months ago x 0.3
36–48 months ago x 0.2

A team must play at least 5 matches per year to be included in the rankings.

Ranking formula[संपादन]

The final ranking points figure is multiplied by 100 and rounded to the nearest whole number.

Ranking\ points\ =\ 100(Result\ points\ \times\ Match\ status\ \times\ Opposition\ strength\ \times\ Regional\ strength\  \times\ Date Multiplier)

Examples[संपादन]

The following examples use these hypothetical teams and confederations, and assume the games are played within the last 12 months:

  • Amplistan is currently ranked 2nd in the world and is a member of confederation XYZ (weighting 1.0);
  • Bestrudia is currently ranked 188th in the world and is a member of confederation ABC (weighting 0.88);
  • Conesto is currently ranked 39th in the world and is a member of confederation QRS (weighting 0.98);
  • Delphiz is currently ranked 30th in the world and is a member of confederation HIJ (weighting 0.94).

A friendly match is played between Amplistan and Bestrudia. Amplistan wins 2-1.

Match Team Result points Match status Opposition strength Regional strength Ranking points
Amplistan vs. Bestrudia (friendly)
Result: 2-1
Amplistan
Bestrudia
3
0
1.0
1.0
0.50
1.98
0.94
0.94
141
0

Bestrudia gets no ranking points because it lost the game, so all factors are multiplied by zero.

Amplistan's 141 ranking points are calculated like this:

  • 3 points for the win;
  • multiplied by 1.0 for match status (friendly match);
  • multiplied by 0.50 for opposition strength (Bestrudia is ranked 188th, so it has the minimum 0.50 weighting);
  • multiplied by 0.94 for regional strength (the average of the weightings for the two teams' confederations);
  • multiplied by 100.

More examples:

Match Team Result points Match status Opposition strength Regional strength Ranking points
Amplistan vs. Bestrudia (friendly)
Result: 1-2
Amplistan
Bestrudia
0
3
1.0
1.0
0.50
1.98
0.94
0.94
0
558
Amplistan vs. Bestrudia (friendly)
Result: 1-1
Amplistan
Bestrudia
1
1
1.0
1.0
0.50
1.98
0.94
0.94
47
186
Amplistan vs. Bestrudia (World Cup finals)
Result: 2-1
Amplistan
Bestrudia
3
0
4.0
4.0
0.50
1.98
0.94
0.94
564
0
Amplistan vs. Bestrudia (World Cup finals)
Result: 1-1 (Bestrudia wins on penalties)
Amplistan
Bestrudia
1
2
4.0
4.0
0.50
1.98
0.94
0.94
188
1488
Conesto vs. Delphiz (Continental cup qualifiers)
Result: 4-0
Conesto
Delphiz
3
0
2.5
2.5
1.70
1.61
0.96
0.96
1224
0
Conesto vs. Delphiz (Continental cup qualifiers)
Result: 0-1
Conesto
Delphiz
0
3
2.5
2.5
1.70
1.61
0.96
0.96
0
1159
Conesto vs. Amplistan (World Cup finals)
Result: 0-0 (Amplistan wins on penalties)
Conesto
Amplistan
1
2
4.0
4.0
1.98
1.61
0.99
0.99
784
1275

1999-2006 calculation method[संपादन]

मुख्य पान: FIFA World Ranking system 1999-2006

In 1999 FIFA introduced a revised system of ranking calculation, incorporating many changes in response to criticism of inappropriate rankings. For the ranking all matches, their scores and importance were all recorded, and were used in the calculation procedure. Only matches for the senior men's national team were included — separate ranking systems were used for other representative national sides such as women's and junior teams, for example the FIFA Women's World Rankings. FIFA did not use the same formula to determine its rankings for women's football. The women's rankings were, and still are, based on a procedure which is a simplified version of the Football Elo Ratings.[१२]

1993-1999 calculation method[संपादन]

The ranking formula used from 1993-1999 was very simplistic and quickly became noticed for its lack of supporting factors. Teams received 3 points for a win and 1 point for a draw.

साचा:Section-stub

Awards[संपादन]

Each year FIFA hands out two awards to its member nations, based on their performance in the rankings. They are;

Team of the Year[संपादन]

Team of the Year is awarded to the team whose best seven matches of the year received the most amount of points overall.

Best Mover of the Year[संपादन]

साचा:Update Best Mover of the Year is awarded to the team who has made the best progress up the rankings over the course of the year. In the FIFA rankings, this is not simply the team that has risen the most places, but a calculation is performed in order to account for the fact that it becomes progressively harder to earn more points the higher up the rankings a team is.[२] The calculation used is the number of points the team has at the end of the year (z) multiplied by the number of points it earned during the year (y). The team with the highest index on this calculation receives the award. The table below shows the calculation for this award in 2002.

Rank Team Points at end of 2002(z) Points won in 2002 (y) Score (z × y)
1 सेनेगालचा ध्वज सेनेगाल 646 107 69122
2 वेल्सचा ध्वज वेल्स 554 113 62602
3 ब्राझीलचा ध्वज ब्राझील 856 63 53928
4 कामेरूनचा ध्वज कामेरून 685 76 52060
5 मालीचा ध्वज माली 490 99 48510

Ranking schedule[संपादन]

Rankings are published monthly, usually on a Wednesday. The deadline for the matches to be considered is the Thursday prior to the release date.

Rankings Schedule
2007
Month Release Date
September 19
October 24
November 21
December 17

See also[संपादन]

References[संपादन]

  1. FIFA current ranking (to see the lower ranked national football teams, choose the pages 2 till 4)
  2. २.० २.१ २.२ २.३ २.४ "FIFA/Coca-Cola World Rankings", FIFA. 
  3. Revised FIFA/Coca-Cola World Ranking, FIFA Media Department, July 06 2006, Accessed October 2006
  4. "Great expectations", FIFA. 
  5. "FIFA Seeding of the Teams participating in 2006 FIFA World Cup Finals", MapsofWorld.com. 
  6. ६.० ६.१ ६.२ "The world rankings riddle", BBC. 
  7. "FIFA adapting new world rankings", Associated Press. 
  8. "FIFA Rankings", Travour.com. 
  9. Finals is used in this sense to mean the 'final tournament' (as opposed to the qualifying tournament)
  10. "FIFA/Coca-Cola World Ranking: In focus", FIFA. 2007-06-21 रोजी तपासले. 
  11. "2006 revision of the FIFA/Coca-Cola World Ranking: Frequently Asked Questions About the FIFA World Ranking", FIFA. 2007-06-21 रोजी तपासले. 
  12. "FIFA Women's World Ranking Methodology", FIFA. 

बाह्य दुवे[संपादन]