पृथ्वीचा इतिहास

विकिपीडिया, मुक्‍त ज्ञानकोशातून
(पृथ्वी चा इतिहास या पानावरून पुनर्निर्देशित)
Translation arrow-indic.svg
ह्या लेखाचा/विभागाचा इंग्रजी किंवा अमराठी भाषेतून मराठी भाषेत भाषांतर करावयाचे बाकी आहे. अनुवाद करण्यास आपलाही सहयोग हवा आहे. ऑनलाईन शब्दकोश आणि इतर सहाय्या करिता भाषांतर प्रकल्पास भेट द्या.



पृथ्वीच्या इतिहासातील युगांच्या कालमर्यादांचे तुलनात्मक चित्र.

पृथ्वीचा इतिहास या लेखात पृथ्वी ग्रहाच्या रचने पासून आज पर्यंतच्या 4.6 अरब वर्षांच्या व्युत्पत्तीच्या कालावधीत घडलेल्या महत्त्वाच्या घटना आणि मूलभूत टप्प्यांची माहिती दिलेली आहे. पृथ्वीचे वय ब्रह्मांडाच्या वयाच्या साधारण एक तृतियांश आहे. या कालावधीमधे भौगोलिक आणि जैविक स्तरावर अफाट बदल घडले आहेत.

हादेयन आणि आरकेयन्[संपादन]

पृथ्वीच्या इतिहासातील प्रथम युगास आरकेयन् युग म्हणतात. या युगाचा कालावधी ४.५ अब्ज वर्षांपूर्वी पासून २.५ अब्ज वर्षांपूर्वी पर्यंत गणला जातो. पृथ्वीवरील सर्वांत जुन्या खडकांची उत्पत्ती ४ अरब वर्षांपूर्वी घडल्याची आढळते. पृथ्वीच्या रचने पासून त्या खडकांच्या रचने पर्यंतच्या कालखंडाला काही वेळा हादेयन नामक वेगळे युग मानले जाते. हादेयन युगातील तीव्र उल्कापात व अतिसक्रीय ज्वालामुखींच्या क्रियेमुळे कोणत्याही पदार्थांचे जतन होवू शकले नसावे; म्हणून या युगा बद्दल अधिक माहिती मिळत नाही.

अरकेयन युगाच्या सुरूवातीला पृथ्वी बर्‍याचं अंशी थंड झाली होती. परंतू ऑक्सिजनओझोन पटलाच्या अभावामुळे तत्कालीन वातावरण कोणत्याही प्रकारच्या जीवनास घातक होते.

सूर्यमालेची व्युत्पत्ती[संपादन]

धूळ आणि वायू या पासून बनलेल्या, चक्रकार फिरणार्‍या एका महाकाय ढगापासून संपूर्ण सूर्यमाला आणि त्याबरोबर पृथ्वीचा उगम झाला. या ढगास सोलर नेब्यूला[मराठी शब्द सुचवा] असे म्हणतात. साधारण 13.7 अरब वर्षांपूर्वी घडलेल्या बिग बँग मधे उत्पन्न झालेल्या हायड्रोजन आणि हेलियम, आणि इतर विस्फोटक तारा मधून उत्सर्जीत झालेल्या जड मूलद्रव्यांपासून पासून सोलर नेब्यूला[मराठी शब्द सुचवा] बनलेला होता. साधारण 4.6 अरब वर्षांपूर्वी हा नेब्यूला आकुंचन पावू लागला. अशी कल्पना आहे की जवळपासच्या एका सूपरनोवाच्या आघात तरंग मुळे आकुंचन प्रक्रियेला सुरुवात झाली असावी आणि त्याचं बरोबर, नेब्यूलाला चक्राकार गती मिळाली असावी. नेब्यूलाचा चक्राकार फिरण्याचा वेग जसा वाढत गेला तसा, गुरुत्वाकर्षण आणि जडत्वामुळे परिवलनाच्या अक्षालगत तो नेब्यूला चपटा होऊन एका प्रोटोप्लॅनेटरी तबकडी[मराठी शब्द सुचवा] मधे रुपांतरित झाला. बहुतांश वस्तुमान केंद्रात स्थिरावले आणि त्याचे तापमान वाढू लागले. तबकडीतील वस्तुमानच्या वाटणीत विषमता होत्या. तुलनात्मक दृष्ट्या कुठे वस्तुमान विरळ होते तर दुसरीकडे घन होते. या विषमतांमुळे तबकडीच्या वस्तुमानात अंतर्गत टकरी होत. यामुळे व घन वस्तुमानाच्या स्वतःच्या अशा वेगळ्या परिवलन गतीमुळे विभागणितील विषमता वाढत गेली आणि काही किलोमिटर आकारमानाचे ग्रहपिंड बनू लागले.

वस्तुमानाच्या आकुंचन, परिवलन गतीची वाढ आणि चिरडून टाकणारे गुरुत्वाकर्षण यामुळे तबकडीच्या केंद्रात प्रचंड प्रमाणावर गतीजन्य उष्णता निर्माण झाली. या साठणार्‍या ऊर्जेचे उत्सर्जन होवून प्रमाण कमी होण्यासाठी कोणताही प्रयायी मार्ग उपलब्ध नसल्याने केंद्राचे तापमान प्रचंड वाढू लागले. अखेरीस, हायड्रोजन चे हेलियम मधे रुपांतर होण्याची नाभिकीय संलयन [मराठी शब्द सुचवा] प्रक्रीया सुरू झाली. परिणामी, वस्तुमान कमी झाले आणि बनलेल्या टी टौरी तार्‍याचे अंतर्गत प्रज्वलन होवून सूर्याचा जन्म झाला.

दुसरीकडे, नवीन सूर्याच्या गुरुत्वाकर्षण कक्षेच्या बाहेर राहिलेल्या घनतर विभागांभोवती वस्तुमानाचा संचय होवू लागला व प्रोटोप्लॅनेटरी तबकडी कंकणाकृती पट्ट्यांमधे विभाजित झाली. प्रत्येक पट्ट्यातील अशा प्रकारे संचयित वस्तुमानाच्या मोठ्या तुकड्यांमध्ये टकरी होवून त्यांचे एकत्रिकरण होवू लागले आणि ग्रहपिंड तयार झाले.[१] केंद्रापासून साधारण १५ कोटी किलोमिटर अंतरावरील पट्टा म्हणजेचं पृथ्वी. साधारण ४.५४ अरब वर्षांपूर्वी (१% ची अनिश्चितता), [२][३][४][५] पृथ्वीची रचना झाली आणि बहुतांश निर्माण प्रक्रीया १ कोटी ते २ कोटी वर्षांमधे पूर्ण झाली. [६] नवजनित सूर्याच्या सौर वार्‍यांनी पसरलेल्या असंचयित वस्तुमानाची सफाई केली.

संगणकीय प्रयोगांमध्ये असे दिसून आले आहे की एखाद्या प्रोटोप्लॅनेटरी तबकडीपासून सूर्यमालेसम ग्रह रचना तयार होवू शकते.[७]

पृथ्वीचा गाभा आणि पहिले वातावरण[संपादन]

हेसुद्धा पाहा: planetary differentiation


The Proto-Earth grew by accretion, until the inner part of the protoplanet was hot enough to melt the heavy, siderophile metals. Due to their larger densities such (now liquid) metals began to sink to the Earth's center of mass. This so called iron catastrophe resulted in a separation of a primitive mantle and a (metallic) core only 10 million years after the Earth began to form. This produced the layered structure of Earth and also set up the formation of Earth's magnetic field.

During the accretion of material to the protoplanet, a cloud of gaseous silica must have surrounded the Earth, to condense afterwards as solid rocks on the surface. What was left surrounding the planet was an early atmosphere of light (atmophile) elements from the solar nebula, mainly hydrogen and helium, but the solar wind and Earth's heat would have driven off this atmosphere.

This changed when Earth was about 40% its present radius, and gravitational attraction retained an atmosphere which included water.

The giant impact[संपादन]

A rare characteristic of our planet is its large natural satellite, the Moon. During the Apollo program, rocks from the Moon's surface were brought back to Earth. Radiometric dating of these rocks has shown the Moon to be 4527 ± 10 million years old,[८] about 30 to 55 million years younger than other bodies in the solar system.[९] Another special feature is the relatively low density of the Moon, which must mean it does not have a large metallic core, like all other terrestrial bodies in the solar system. In fact, the Moon has a bulk composition closely resembling the Earth's mantle and crust together, without the Earth's core. This has led to the giant impact hypothesis, the idea that the Moon was formed during a giant impact of the proto-Earth with another protoplanet. The Moon formed by accretion of the material blown off the mantles of the proto-Earth and impactor.[१०]

The impactor, sometimes named Theia, is thought to have been a little smaller than the current planet Mars. It could have formed by accretion of matter about 150 million kilometres from both the Sun and Earth, at their fourth or fifth Lagrangian point. Its orbit may have been stable at first, but destabilized as Theia's mass increased due to accretion of more and more matter. Theia oscillated in larger and larger orbits around the Lagrangian point until it finally collided with Earth an estimated 4.533 Ga.[११]

Models show that when an impactor this size struck the proto-Earth at a low angle and relatively low speed (8–20 km/sec), a lot of material from the mantles (and proto-crusts) of the proto-Earth and the impactor was ejected into space, where much of it stayed in orbit around the Earth. This material would eventually form the Moon. However, the metallic cores of the impactor would have sunk through the Earth's mantle to fuse with the Earth's core, depleting the Moon of metallic material.[१२] The giant impact hypothesis thus explains the Moon's abnormal composition.[१३] The ejecta in orbit around the Earth could have condensed into a single body within a couple of weeks. Under the influence of its own gravity, the ejected material became a more spherical body: the Moon.[१४]

The radiometric ages show the Earth existed already for at least 10 million years before the impact, enough time to allow for differentiation of the Earth's primitive mantle and core. Then, when the impact occurred, only material from the mantle was ejected, leaving the Earth's core of heavy siderophile elements untouched.

The impact had some important consequences for the young Earth. It released a gigantic amount of energy, causing both the Earth and Moon to be completely molten. Immediately after the impact, the Earth's mantle was vigorously convecting, the surface was a large magma ocean. Due to the enormous amount of energy released, the planet's first atmosphere must have been completely blown off.[१५] The impact is also thought to have changed Earth’s axis to produce the large 23.5° axial tilt that is responsible for Earth’s seasons (a simple, ideal model of the planets’ origins would have axial tilts of 0° with no recognizable seasons). It may also have sped up Earth’s rotation.

समुद्रांची व्युत्पत्ती आणि वातावरण[संपादन]

Because the Earth lacked an atmosphere immediately after the giant impact, cooling must have been fast. Within 150 million years a solid crust with a basaltic composition must have formed. The felsic continental crust of today did not yet exist. Within the Earth, further differentiation could only begin when the mantle had at least partly solidified again. Nevertheless, during the early Archaean (about 3.0 Ga) the mantle was still much hotter than today, probably around 1600°C. This means its fraction that was partially molten was still much larger than today.

Steam escaped from the crust, and more gases were released by volcanoes, completing the second atmosphere. Additional water was imported by bolide collisions, probably from asteroids ejected from the outer asteroid belt under the influence of Jupiter's gravity.

The large amount of water on Earth can never have been produced by volcanism and degassing alone. It is assumed the water was derived from impacting comets that contained ice.[१६] Though most comets are today in orbits further away from the Sun than Neptune, computer simulations show they were originally far more common in the inner parts of the solar system. However, most of the water on Earth was probably derived from small impacting protoplanets, objects comparable with today's small icy moons of the outer planets.[१७] Impacts of these objects can have enriched the terrestrial planets (Mercury, Venus, the Earth and Mars) with water, carbon dioxide, methane, ammonia, nitrogen and other volatiles. If all water in the Earth's oceans was derived from comets alone, a million impacting comets are required to explain the oceans. Computer simulations show this is not an unreasonable number.

As the planet cooled, clouds formed. Rain gave rise to the oceans. Recent evidence suggests the oceans may have begun forming by 4.2 Ga.[१८] At the start of the Archaean eon, the Earth was already covered with oceans. The new atmosphere probably contained ammonia, methane, water vapor, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen, as well as smaller amounts of other gases. Any free oxygen would have been bound by hydrogen or minerals on the surface. Volcanic activity was intense and, without an ozone layer to hinder its entry, ultraviolet radiation flooded the surface.

Lithified stromatolites on the shores of Lake Thetis (Western Australia). Stromatolites are formed by colonies of single celled organisms like cyanobacteria or chlorophyta. These colonies of algae entrap sedimentary grains, thus forming the draped sedimentary layers of a stromatolite. Archaean stromatolites are the first direct fossil traces of life on Earth, even though little preserved fossilized cells have been found inside them. The Archaean and Proterozoic oceans could have been full of algal mats like these.

पहिले खंड[संपादन]

Mantle convection, the process that drives plate tectonics today, is a result of heat flow from the core to the Earth's surface. It involves the creation of rigid tectonic plates at mid-oceanic ridges. These plates are destroyed by subduction into the mantle at subduction zones. The inner Earth was warmer during the Hadean and Archaean eons, so convection in the mantle must have been faster. When a process similar to present day plate tectonics did occur, this will have gone faster too. Most geologists think that in the Hadean and Archaean subduction zones were more common, and therefore tectonic plates were smaller.

The initial crust that formed when the Earth's surface first solidified totally disappeared from a combination of this fast Hadean plate tectonics and the intense impacts of the Late Heavy Bombardment. It is however assumed that this crust must have been basaltic in composition like today's oceanic crust, because little crustal differentiation had yet taken place. The first larger pieces of continental crust, which is a product of differentiation of lighter elements during partial melting in the lower crust, appeared at the start of the Archaean, about 4.0 Ga. What is left of these first small continents are called cratons. These pieces of Archaean crust form the cores around which today's continents grew.

The oldest rocks on Earth are found in the North American craton of Canada. They are tonalites and about 4.0 Ga. They show traces of metamorphism by high temperature, but also sedimentary grains that have been rounded by erosion during transport by water, showing rivers and seas existed at the time.[१९]

Cratons consist mostly of two alternating types of terranes. The first are so called greenstone belts, consisting of low grade metamorphosed sedimentary rocks. These "greenstones" are similar to the sediments today found in oceanic trenches, above subduction zones. For this reason, greenstones are sometimes seen as evidence for subduction during the Archaean. The second type are complexes of felsic magmatic rocks. These rocks are mostly tonalite, trondhjemite or granodiorite, types of rock similar in composition to granite (hence such terranes are called TTG-terranes). TTG-complexes are seen as the relicts of the first continental crust, formed by partial melting in basalt. The alternation between greenstone belts and TTG-complexes is interpreted as a tectonic situation in which small proto-continents were separated by a thorough network of subduction zones.

Origin of life[संपादन]

The replicator in virtually all known life is deoxyribonucleic acid. DNA is far more complex than the original replicator and its replication systems are highly elaborate.
मुख्य पान: Abiogenesis

The details of the origin of life are unknown, but the broad principles have been established. There are two schools of thought about the origin of life. One suggests that organic components arrived on Earth from space (see “Panspermia”), while the other argues that they originated on Earth. Nevertheless, both schools propose similar mechanisms by which life initially arose.[२०]

If life arose on Earth, the timing of this event is highly speculative—perhaps it arose around 4 Ga.[२१] In the energetic chemistry of early Earth, a molecule gained the ability to make copies of itself–a replicator. (More accurately, it promoted the chemical reactions which produced a copy of itself.) The replication was not always accurate: some copies were slightly different from their parent.

If the change destroyed the copying ability of the molecule, the molecule did not produce any copies, and the line “died out”. On the other hand, a few rare changes might make the molecule replicate faster or better: those “strains” would become more numerous and “successful”. This created evolution. As choice raw materials (“food”) became depleted, strains which could exploit different materials, or perhaps halt the progress of other strains and steal their resources, became more numerous.[२२]

The nature of the first replicator is unknown because its function was long since superseded by life’s current replicator, DNA. Several models have been proposed explaining how a replicator might have developed. Different replicators have been posited, including organic chemicals such as modern proteins, nucleic acids, phospholipids, crystals,[२३] or even quantum systems.[२४] There is currently no way to determine whether any of these models closely fits the origin of life on Earth.

One of the older theories, and one which has been worked out in some detail, will serve as an example of how this might occur. The high energy from volcanoes, lightning, and ultraviolet radiation could help drive chemical reactions producing more complex molecules from simple compounds such as methane and ammonia.[२५]:38 Among these were many of the relatively simple organic compounds that are the building blocks of life. As the amount of this “organic soup” increased, different molecules reacted with one another. Sometimes more complex molecules would result—perhaps clay provided a framework to collect and concentrate organic material.[२५]:39

The presence of certain molecules could speed up a chemical reaction. All this continued for a very long time, with reactions occurring more or less at random, until by chance it produced a replicator molecule. In any case, at some point, the function of the replicator was superseded by DNA; all known life (except some viruses and prions) use DNA as their replicator, in an almost identical manner (see Genetic code).

A small section of a cell membrane. This modern cell membrane is far more sophisticated than the original simple phospholipid bilayer (the small blue spheres with two tails). Proteins and carbohydrates serve various functions in regulating the passage of material through the membrane and in reacting to the environment.

Modern life has its replicating material packaged inside a cellular membrane. It is easier to understand the origin of the cell membrane than the origin of the replicator, because a cell membrane is made of phospholipid molecules which often form a bilayer spontaneously when placed in water. Under certain conditions, many such spheres can be formed (see “The bubble theory”).[२५]:40

The prevailing theory is that the membrane formed after the replicator, which perhaps by then was RNA (the RNA world hypothesis), along with its replicating apparatus and maybe other biomolecules. Initial protocells may have simply burst when they grew too large; the scattered contents may then have recolonized other “bubbles”. Proteins that stabilized the membrane, or that later assisted in an orderly division, would have promoted the proliferation of those cell lines.

RNA is a likely candidate for an early replicator, because it can both store genetic information and catalyze reactions. At some point DNA took over the genetic storage role from RNA, and proteins known as enzymes took over the catalysis role, leaving RNA to transfer information and modulate the process. There is increasing belief that these early cells evolved in association with underwater volcanic vents known as black smokers[२५]:42 or even hot, deep rocks.[२६]

It is believed that of this multiplicity of protocells, only one survived. Current evidence suggests that the last universal common ancestor lived during the early Archean eon, perhaps roughly 3.5 Ga or earlier.[२७][२८] This “LUCA” cell is the ancestor of all life on Earth today. It was probably a prokaryote, possessing a cell membrane and probably ribosomes, but lacking a nucleus or membrane-bound organelles such as mitochondria or chloroplasts.

Like all modern cells, it used DNA as its genetic code, RNA for information transfer and protein synthesis, and enzymes to catalyze reactions. Some scientists believe that instead of a single organism being the last universal common ancestor, there were populations of organisms exchanging genes in lateral gene transfer.[२७]

Proterozoic eon[संपादन]

The Proterozoic is the eon of Earth's history that lasted from 2.500 billion to 542 million years ago. In this time span, the cratons grew into continents with modern sizes. For the first time it is clear that plate tectonics took place in a more or less modern sense. Another important development was the change to an oxygen rich atmosphere. Life developed from prokaryotes into eukaryotes and multicellular forms. The Proterozoic saw a couple of very severe ice ages called snowball Earths. After the end of the last Snowball Earth about 600 million years ago, the evolution of life on Earth accelerated. About 580 million years ago, the Ediacara biota formed the prelude for the Cambrian Explosion.

The oxygen revolution[संपादन]

मुख्य पान: Oxygen catastrophe
The harnessing of the sun’s energy led to several major changes in life on Earth.
Graph showing the estimated partial pressure of oxygen in the atmosphere (red) and concentration in the oceans and seas (green) through geologic time.
A banded iron formation from the 3.15 Ga Moories Group, Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa. Red layers represent the times when oxygen was available, gray layers were formed in anoxic circumstances.

It is likely that the initial cells were all heterotrophs, using surrounding organic molecules (including those from other cells) as raw material and an energy source.[२९] As the food supply diminished, a new strategy evolved in some cells. Instead of relying on the diminishing amounts of free-existing organic molecules, these cells adopted sunlight as an energy source. Estimates vary, but by about 3 Ga[३०], something similar to modern photosynthesis had probably developed. This made the sun’s energy available not only to autotrophs but also to the heterotrophs that consumed them. Photosynthesis used the plentiful carbon dioxide and water as raw materials and, with the energy of sunlight, produced energy-rich organic molecules (carbohydrates).

Moreover, oxygen was produced as a waste product of photosynthesis. At first it became bound up with limestone, iron, and other minerals. There is substantial proof of this in iron-oxide rich layers in geological strata that correspond with this time period. The reaction of the minerals with oxygen would have turned the oceans green. When most of the exposed readily-reacting minerals were oxidized, oxygen finally began to accumulate in the atmosphere. Though each cell only produced a minute amount of oxygen, the combined metabolism of many cells over a vast period of time transformed Earth’s atmosphere to its current state.[२५]:50-51 Among the oldest examples of oxygen-producing lifeforms are fossil stromatolites. This was Earth’s third atmosphere.

Some of the oxygen was stimulated by incoming ultraviolet radiation to form ozone, which collected in a layer near the upper part of the atmosphere. The ozone layer absorbed, and still absorbs, a significant amount of the ultraviolet radiation that once had passed through the atmosphere. It allowed cells to colonize the surface of the ocean and ultimately the land:[३१] without the ozone layer, ultraviolet radiation bombarding the surface would have caused unsustainable levels of mutation in exposed cells.

Photosynthesis had another, major, and world-changing impact. Oxygen was toxic; probably much life on Earth died out as its levels rose in what is known as the "oxygen catastrophe".[३१] Resistant forms survived and thrived, and some developed the ability to use oxygen to enhance their metabolism and derive more energy from the same food.

[मराठी शब्द सुचवा]===हिमगोल रूपात पृथ्वी आणि ओझोन आवरणाची उत्पत्ती === An oxygen-rich atmosphere had two important advantages for life. Organisms not using oxygen for their metabolism, such as anaerobe bacteria, base their metabolism on fermentation. The abundance of oxygen makes respiration possible, a much more effective energy source for life. The second advantage of an oxygen-rich atmosphere is that oxygen forms ozone in the higher atmosphere, causing the origin of the Earth's ozone layer. The ozone layer protects the Earth's surface from ultraviolet radiation, which is harmful for life. Without the ozone layer, the development of more complex life later on would probably have been impossible.[३२]

The natural evolution of the Sun made it gradually more luminous during the Archaean and Proterozoic eons. The Sun's luminosity increases 6% every billion years.[३३] As a result, the Earth began to receive more heat from the Sun in the Proterozoic eon. However, the Earth did not get warmer. Instead, the geological record seems to suggest it cooled dramatically during the early Proterozoic. Glacial deposits found on all cratons show that about 2.3 Ga, the Earth underwent its first big ice age (the Makganyene ice age).[३४] Some scientists suggest this and following Proterozoic ice ages were so severe that the planet was totally frozen over from the poles to the equator, a hypothesis called Snowball Earth. Not all geologists agree with this scenario and older, Archaean ice ages have been postulated, but the ice age 2.3 Ga is the first such event for which the evidence is universally accepted.

The ice age around 2.3 Ga could have been directly caused by the increased oxygen concentration in the atmosphere, which caused the decrease of methane (CH4) in the atmosphere. Methane is a strong greenhouse gas, but with oxygen it reacts to form CO2, a less effective greenhouse gas.[३५] When free oxygen became available in the atmosphere, the concentration of methane could have decreased dramatically, enough to counter the effect of the increasing heat flow from the Sun.

Proterozoic development of life[संपादन]

मुख्य पान: Endosymbiotic theory
Some of the pathways by which the various endosymbionts might have arisen.

Modern taxonomy classifies life into three domains. The time of the origin of these domains is speculative. The Bacteria domain probably first split off from the other forms of life (sometimes called Neomura), but this supposition is controversial. Soon after this, by 2 Ga,[३६] the Neomura split into the Archaea and the Eukarya. Eukaryotic cells (Eukarya) are larger and more complex than prokaryotic cells (Bacteria and Archaea), and the origin of that complexity is only now coming to light.

Around this time, the first proto-mitochondrion was formed. A bacterial cell related to today’s Rickettsia[३७] entered a larger prokaryotic cell. Perhaps the large cell attempted to ingest the smaller one but failed (maybe due to the evolution of prey defenses). Or, perhaps the smaller cell tried to parasitize the larger one. In any case, the smaller cell survived inside the larger cell. Using oxygen, it was able to metabolize the larger cell’s waste products and derive more energy. Some of this surplus energy was returned to the host. The smaller cell replicated inside the larger one. Soon, a stable symbiosis developed between the large cell and the smaller cells inside it. Over time, the host cell acquired some of the genes of the smaller cells, and the two kinds became dependent on each other: the larger cell could not survive without the energy produced by the smaller ones, and these in turn could not survive without the raw materials provided by the larger cell. The whole cell is now considered a single organism, and the smaller cells are classified as organelles called mitochondria.

A similar event occurred with photosynthetic cyanobacteria[३८] entering larger heterotrophic cells and becoming chloroplasts.[२५][३९]:60-61 Probably as a result of these changes, a line of cells capable of photosynthesis split off from the other eukaryotes more than 1 billion years ago. There were probably several such inclusion events, as the figure at right suggests. Besides the well-established endosymbiotic theory of the cellular origin of mitochondria and chloroplasts, it has been suggested that cells gave rise to peroxisomes, spirochetes gave rise to cilia and flagella, and that perhaps a DNA virus gave rise to the cell nucleus,[४०],[४१] though none of these theories are generally accepted.[४२]

Green algae of the genus Volvox are believed to be similar to the first multicellular plants.

Archaeans, bacteria, and eukaryotes continued to diversify and to become more sophisticated and better adapted to their environments. Each domain repeatedly split into multiple lineages, although little is known about the history of the archaea and bacteria. Around 1.1 Ga, the supercontinent Rodinia was assembling.[४३] The plant, animal, and fungi lines had all split, though they still existed as solitary cells. Some of these lived in colonies, and gradually some division of labor began to take place; for instance, cells on the periphery might have started to assume different roles from those in the interior. Although the division between a colony with specialized cells and a multicellular organism is not always clear, around 1 billion years ago[४४] the first multicellular plants emerged, probably green algae.[४५] Possibly by around 900 million years ago[४६] true multicellularity had also evolved in animals.

At first it probably somewhat resembled that of today’s sponges, where all cells were totipotent and a disrupted organism could reassemble itself.[४७] As the division of labor became more complete in all lines of multicellular organisms, cells became more specialized and more dependent on each other; isolated cells would die.

Rodinia and other supercontinents[संपादन]

When the theory of plate tectonics was developed around 1960, geologists began to reconstruct the movements and positions of the continents in the past. This appeared relatively easy until about 250 million years back, when all continents were united in what is called the "supercontinent" Pangaea. Before that time, reconstructions cannot rely on apparent similarities in coastlines or ages of oceanic crust, but instead solely rely on geologic observations and, more importantly, on paleomagnetic data.[४८]

Throughout the history of the Earth, there have been times when the continental mass came together to form a supercontinent, followed by the break-up of the supercontinent and new continents moving apart again. This repetition of tectonic events is called a Wilson cycle. The further back in time, the scarcer and harder to interpret the data get. It is at least clear that, about 1000 to 830 million years ago, most continental mass was united in the supercontinent Rodinia.[४९] It is very probable Rodinia was not the first supercontinent and a number of early Proterozoic supercontinents have been proposed. This means plate tectonic processes similar to today's must have been active during the Proterozoic.

After the break-up of Rodinia about 800 million years ago, it is possible the continents joined again around 550 million years ago. The hypothetical supercontinent is sometimes referred to as Pannotia or Vendia. The evidence for it is a phase of continental collision known as the Pan-African orogeny, which joined the continental masses of current-day Africa, South-America, Antarctica and Australia. It is very likely however, that the assemblage of continental masses was not complete, since a continent called Laurentia (roughly equal to current-day North America) had already started breaking off around 610 million years ago. It is at least certain that by the end of the Proterozoic eon, most of the continental mass lay united in a position around the south pole.[५०]

Late Proterozoic climate and life[संपादन]

A 580 million year old fossil of Spriggina floundensi, an animal from the Ediacaran period. Such life forms could have been ancestors to the many new forms that origined in the Cambrian Explosion.

The end of the Proterozoic saw at least two Snowball Earths, so severe that the surface of the oceans may have been completely frozen. This happened about 710 and 640 million years ago, in the Cryogenian period. These severe glaciations are less easy to explain than the early Proterozoic Snowball Earth. Most paleoclimatologists think the cold episodes had something to do with the formation of the supercontinent Rodinia. Because Rodinia was centered around the equator, rates of chemical weathering increased and carbon dioxide (CO2) was taken from the atmosphere. Because CO2 is an important greenhouse gas climates cooled globally.

In the same way, during the Snowball Earths most of the continental surface was in permafrost, which decreased the amount of chemical weathering again, leading to the end of the glaciations. An alternative hypothesis is that enough carbon dioxide escaped through volcanic outgassing that the resulting greenhouse effect raised global temperatures.[५१] Increased volcanic activity resulted from the break-up of Rodinia at about the same time.

The Cryogenian period was followed by the Ediacaran period, which was characterized by a rapid development of new multicellular lifeforms. If there is a relation between the end of the severe ice ages and the increase in diversity of life, is not clear, but it does not seem coincidental. The new forms of life, called Ediacara biota, were larger and more diverse than ever. Most scientist think some of them may have been the precursors of the new life forms of the following Cambrian period. Though the taxonomy of most Ediacaran life forms is unclear, some are proposed to have been ancestors of groups of modern life.[५२] Important developments were the origin of muscular and neural cells. None of the Ediacaran fossils had hard body parts like skeletons. These first appear after the boundary between the Proterozoic and Phanerozoic eons or Ediacaran and Cambrian periods.

पॅलियोझोइक कालखंड[संपादन]

The Paleozoic era (meaning: era of old life forms) was the first era of the Phanerozoic eon, lasting from 542 to 251 million years ago. During the Paleozoic, many modern groups of life came into existence. Life colonized the land, first plants, then animals. The evolution of life went sometimes gradually, but in other cases by "explosive" radiation of new species or by sudden mass extinctions. These sudden changes were often the result of rapid changes in the environment brought about by natural disasters such as volcanic activity, meteorite impacts or climate changes.

The continents formed at the break-up of Pannotia and Rodinia at the end of the Proterozoic would slowly move together again during the Paleozoic. This would eventually result in phases of mountain building which created the supercontinent Pangaea in the late Paleozoic.

कँब्रियन स्फोट[संपादन]

मुख्य पान: कँब्रियन स्फोट

Apparently, the rate of the evolution of life accelerated in the Cambrian period (542-488 million years ago). The sudden origin of many new species, phyla, and forms in this period is called the Cambrian Explosion. The biological formenting in the Cambrian Explosion was unpreceded before and since that time.[५३] Whereas the Ediacaran life forms appear yet primitive and not easy to put in any modern group, at the end of the Cambrian most modern phyla were already present. Because of the development of hard body parts such as shells, skeletons or exoskeletons in animals like molluscs, echinoderms, crinoids and arthropods (a well-known group of arthropods from the lower Paleozoic are the trilobites) made the preservation and fossilisation of such life forms easier than those of their Proterozoic ancestors.[५४] For this reason, much more is known about life in and after the Cambrian than about that of older periods. The boundary between the Cambrian and Ordovician (the following period, 488-444 million years ago) is characterized by a large mass-extinction, in which some of the new groups disappeared altogether.[५५] Some of these Cambrian groups appear complex but totally different compared to modern life, examples are Anomalocaris and Haikouichthys.

During the Cambrian, the first vertebrate animals, among them the first fishes, had appeared.[५६] A creature that could have been the ancestor of the fishes or was probably closely related to it, was Pikaia. It had a primitive notochord, a structure that could have developed into a vertebral column later. The first fishes with jaws (Gnathostomata) appeared during the Ordovician. The colonisation of new niches resulted in gigantic body sizes. In this way, fishes with increasing sizes evolved in the course of the early Paleozoic, such as the gigantic placoderm Dunkleosteus, which could become 7 meters long.

Paleozoic tectonics, paleogeography and climate[संपादन]

At the end of the Proterozoic, the supercontinent Pannotia had broken apart in the smaller continents Laurentia, Baltica, Siberia and Gondwana. During periods when continents move apart, more oceanic crust is formed by volcanic activity. Because young volcanic crust is relatively hot and less dense than old oceanic crust, the ocean floors will rise during such periods. This causes the sea level to rise. Therefore, in the first half of the Paleozoic, large areas of the continents were below sea level.

Early Paleozoic climates were generally warmer than today, but the end of the Ordovician saw a short ice age, in which glaciers covered the south pole, where the huge continent Gondwana was situated. Traces of glaciation from this period are only found on former Gondwana. During the Late Ordovician ice age, a number of mass extinctions took place, in which many brachiopods, trilobites, Bryozoa and corals disappeared. These marine species could probably not cope with the decreasing temperature of the sea water.[५७] After the extinctions new species evolved, more diverse and better adapted. They would fill the niches left by the extinct species.

The continents Laurentia and Baltica collided between 450 and 400 million years ago, during the Caledonian Orogeny, to form Laurussia. Traces of the mountain belt which resulted from this collision can be found in Scandinavia, Scotland and the northern Appalachians. In the Devonian period (416-359 million years ago) Gondwana and Siberia began to move towards Laurussia. The collision of Siberia with Laurussia caused the Uralian Orogeny, the collision of Gondwana with Laurussia is called the Variscan or Hercynian Orogeny in Europe or the Alleghenian Orogeny in North America. The latter phase took place during the Carboniferous period (359-299 million years ago) and resulted in the formation of the last supercontinent, Pangaea.

Colonization of land[संपादन]

For most of Earth’s history, there were no multicellular organisms on land. Parts of the surface may have vaguely resembled this view of Mars.[ संदर्भ हवा ]

Oxygen accumulation from photosynthesis resulted in the formation of an ozone layer that absorbed much of Sun’s ultraviolet radiation, meaning unicellular organisms that reached land were less likely to die, and prokaryotes began to multiply and become better adapted to survival out of the water. Prokaryotes had probably colonized the land as early as 2.6 Ga[५८] even before the origin of the eukaryotes. For a long time, the land remained barren of multicellular organisms. The supercontinent Pannotia formed around 600 Ma and then broke apart a short 50 million years later.[५९] Fish, the earliest vertebrates, evolved in the oceans around 530 Ma.[६०] A major extinction event occurred near the end of the Cambrian period,[६१] which ended 488 Ma.[६२]

Several hundred million years ago, plants (probably resembling algae) and fungi started growing at the edges of the water, and then out of it.[६३] The oldest fossils of land fungi and plants date to 480–460 Ma, though molecular evidence suggests the fungi may have colonized the land as early as 1000 Ma and the plants 700 Ma.[६४] Initially remaining close to the water’s edge, mutations and variations resulted in further colonization of this new environment. The timing of the first animals to leave the oceans is not precisely known: the oldest clear evidence is of arthropods on land around 450 Ma,[६५] perhaps thriving and becoming better adapted due to the vast food source provided by the terrestrial plants. There is also some unconfirmed evidence that arthropods may have appeared on land as early as 530 Ma.[६६]

At the end of the Ordovician period, 440 Ma, additional extinction events occurred, perhaps due to a concurrent ice age.[५७] Around 380 to 375 Ma, the first tetrapods evolved from fish.[६७] It is thought that perhaps fins evolved to become limbs which allowed the first tetrapods to lift their heads out of the water to breathe air. This would let them survive in oxygen-poor water or pursue small prey in shallow water.[६७] They may have later ventured on land for brief periods. Eventually, some of them became so well adapted to terrestrial life that they spent their adult lives on land, although they hatched in the water and returned to lay their eggs. This was the origin of the amphibians. About 365 Ma, another period of extinction occurred, perhaps as a result of global cooling.[६८] Plants evolved seeds, which dramatically accelerated their spread on land, around this time (by approximately 360 Ma).[६९][७०]

Pangaea, the most recent supercontinent, existed from 300 to 180 Ma. The outlines of the modern continents and other land masses are indicated on this map.

Some 20 million years later (340 Ma[७१]), the amniotic egg evolved, which could be laid on land, giving a survival advantage to tetrapod embryos. This resulted in the divergence of amniotes from amphibians. Another 30 million years (310 Ma[७२]) saw the divergence of the synapsids (including mammals) from the sauropsids (including birds and reptiles). Other groups of organisms continued to evolve and lines diverged—in fish, insects, bacteria, and so on—but less is known of the details. 300 million years ago, the most recent hypothesized supercontinent formed, called Pangaea.

The most severe extinction event to date took place 250 Ma, at the boundary of the Permian and Triassic periods; 95% of life on Earth died out,[७३] possibly due to the Siberian Traps volcanic event. The discovery of the Wilkes Land crater in Antarctica may suggest a connection with the Permian-Triassic extinction, but the age of that crater is not known.[७४] But life persevered, and around 230 Ma,[७५] dinosaurs split off from their reptilian ancestors. An extinction event between the Triassic and Jurassic periods 200 Ma spared many of the dinosaurs,[७६] and they soon became dominant among the vertebrates. Though some of the mammalian lines began to separate during this period, existing mammals were probably all small animals resembling shrews.[७७]

By 180 Ma, Pangaea broke up into Laurasia and Gondwana. The boundary between avian and non-avian dinosaurs is not clear, but Archaeopteryx, traditionally considered one of the first birds, lived around 150 Ma.[७८] The earliest evidence for the angiosperms evolving flowers is during the Cretaceous period, some 20 million years later (132 Ma).[७९]

Competition with birds drove many pterosaurs to extinction and the dinosaurs were probably already in decline[८०] when, 65 Ma, a १०-किलो-मीटर (६.२ मैल) meteorite probably struck Earth just off the Yucatán Peninsula where the Chicxulub crater is today. This ejected vast quantities of particulate matter and vapor into the air that occluded sunlight, inhibiting photosynthesis. Most large animals, including the non-avian dinosaurs, became extinct,[८१] marking the end of the Cretaceous period and Mesozoic era. Thereafter, in the Paleocene epoch, mammals rapidly diversified, grew larger, and became the dominant vertebrates. Perhaps a couple of million years later (around 63 Ma), the last common ancestor of primates lived.[८२] By the late Eocene epoch, 34 Ma, some terrestrial mammals had returned to the oceans to become animals such as Basilosaurus which later gave rise to dolphins and baleen whales.[८३]

Cenozoic era[संपादन]

Human evolution[संपादन]

मुख्य पान: Human evolution

A small African ape living around six million years ago was the last animal whose descendants would include both modern humans and their closest relatives, the bonobos, and chimpanzees.[८४] Only two branches of its family tree have surviving descendants. Very soon after the split, for reasons that are still debated, apes in one branch developed the ability to walk upright.[८५] Brain size increased rapidly, and by 2 Ma, the very first animals classified in the genus Homo had appeared.[८६] Of course, the line between different species or even genera is rather arbitrary as organisms continuously change over generations. Around the same time, the other branch split into the ancestors of the common chimpanzee and the ancestors of the bonobo as evolution continued simultaneously in all life forms.[८४]

The ability to control fire probably began in Homo erectus (or Homo ergaster), probably at least 790,000 years ago[८७] but perhaps as early as 1.5 Ma.[८८] In addition it has sometimes suggested that the use and discovery of controlled fire may even predate Homo erectus. Fire was possibly used by the early Lower Paleolithic (Oldowan) hominid Homo habilis and/or by robust australopithecines such as Paranthropus.[८९]

It is more difficult to establish the origin of language; it is unclear whether Homo erectus could speak or if that capability had not begun until Homo sapiens.[९०] As brain size increased, babies were born sooner, before their heads grew too large to pass through the pelvis. As a result, they exhibited more plasticity, and thus possessed an increased capacity to learn and required a longer period of dependence. Social skills became more complex, language became more advanced, and tools became more elaborate. This contributed to further cooperation and brain development.[९१] Anatomically modern humans — Homo sapiens — are believed to have originated somewhere around 200,000 years ago or earlier in Africa; the oldest fossils date back to around 160,000 years ago.[९२]

The first humans to show evidence of spirituality are the Neanderthals (usually classified as a separate species with no surviving descendants); they buried their dead, often apparently with food or tools.[९३] However, evidence of more sophisticated beliefs, such as the early Cro-Magnon cave paintings (probably with magical or religious significance)[९४] did not appear until some 32,000 years ago.[९५] Cro-Magnons also left behind stone figurines such as Venus of Willendorf, probably also signifying religious belief.[९४] By 11,000 years ago, Homo sapiens had reached the southern tip of South America, the last of the uninhabited continents (except for Antarctica, which remained undiscovered until 1820 AD).[९६] Tool use and language continued to improve; interpersonal relationships became more complex.

संस्कृती[संपादन]

मुख्य पान: History of the world
हेसुद्धा पाहा: History of Africa, History of the Americas, History of Antarctica, आणि History of Eurasia


लिओनार्दो दा विंचीचा व्हर्चुव्हियन मॅन या चित्रात रिनैसाँ कालखंडातील विज्ञान आणि कलाक्षेत्रातील प्रगतीतील सगळे गुण प्रतिबिंबित होतात.

मानवाच्या इतिहासातील ९०%पेक्षा जास्त काळ त्याने भटक्या जमातींच्या स्वरुपात व्यतीत केला आहे. hunter-gatherers.[९७] जसजशी भाषांची उत्क्रांती होत गेली, तसतशी माणसाची भूतकाळातील घटना लक्षात ठेवण्याची आणि ती इतरांना सांगण्याची शक्तीही वाढली. यामुळे संचितमाहिती शतगुणित होण्यासाठीचे एक साधनही मिळाले.[९८] यामुळे माणसाला आपल्याला सुचलेल्या कल्पनांचे एकमेकांशी आदानप्रदान करणे तसेच आपल्यानंतरच्या पिढीला सांगणे सोपे झाले.

Cultural evolution quickly outpaced biological evolution, and history proper began. Somewhere between 8500 and 7000 BC, humans in the Fertile Crescent in Middle East began the systematic husbandry of plants and animals: agriculture.[९९] This spread to neighboring regions, and also developed independently elsewhere, until most Homo sapiens lived sedentary lives in permanent settlements as farmers.

Not all societies abandoned nomadism, especially those in isolated areas of the globe poor in domesticable plant species, such as Australia.[१००] However, among those civilizations that did adopt agriculture, the relative security and increased productivity provided by farming allowed the population to expand.

Agriculture had a major impact; humans began to affect the environment as never before. Surplus food allowed a priestly or governing class to arise, followed by increasing division of labor. This led to Earth’s first civilization at Sumer in the Middle East, between 4000 and 3000 BC.[१०१] Additional civilizations quickly arose in ancient Egypt, at the Indus River valley and in China.

Starting around 3000 BC, Hinduism, one of the oldest religions still practiced today, began to take form.[१०२] Others soon followed. The invention of writing enabled complex societies to arise: record-keeping and libraries served as a storehouse of knowledge and increased the cultural transmission of information. Humans no longer had to spend all their time working for survival—curiosity and education drove the pursuit of knowledge and wisdom.

Various disciplines, including science (in a primitive form), arose. New civilizations sprang up, traded with one another, and engaged in war for territory and resources: empires began to form. By around 500 BC, there were empires in the Middle East, Iran, India, China, and Greece, approximately on equal footing; at times one empire expanded, only to decline or be driven back later.[१०३]

In the fourteenth century, the Renaissance began in Italy with advances in religion, art, and science.[१०४] Starting around 1500, European civilization began to undergo changes leading to the scientific and industrial revolutions: that continent began to exert political and cultural dominance over human societies around the planet.[१०५] From 1914 to 1918 and 1939 to 1945, nations around the world were embroiled in world wars.

Established following World War I, the League of Nations was a first step in establishing international institutions to resolve disputes peacefully; after its failure to prevent World War II and the subsequent end of the conflict it was replaced by the United Nations. In 1992, several European nations joined together in the European Union. As transportation and communication improved, the economies and political affairs of nations around the world have become increasingly intertwined. This globalization has often produced both discord and collaboration.

अलीकडील घटना[संपादन]

मुख्य पान: Modern era
हेसुद्धा पाहा: Modernity आणि Future


पृथ्वीचा जन्म झाल्यानंतर सुमारे साडेचार अब्ज वर्षांनी पृथ्वीवरील जीवसृष्टीने ग्रहापासून लांब भरारी घेतली. इतिहासात पहिल्यांदाच अंतराळातून पृथ्वीचे दर्शन घेतले गेले.

१९४०च्या दशकापासून आजमितीस मोठ्या गतीने बदल घडत आहेत. तंत्रज्ञानातील मोठ्या वाटचालींमध्ये आण्विक शस्त्रे, संगणक, अतिसूक्ष्मतंत्रज्ञान, आणि जनुक तंत्रज्ञान यांचा समावेश आहे. Economic globalization spurred by advances in communication and transportation technology has influenced everyday life in many parts of the world. Cultural and institutional forms such as democracy, capitalism, and environmentalism have increased influence. Major concerns and problems such as disease, war, poverty, violent radicalism, and more recently, human-caused climate change have risen as the world population increases.

In 1957, the सोवियेत संघ launched the first artificial satellite into orbit and, soon afterward, Yuri Gagarin became the first human in space. Neil Armstrong, an American, was the first to set foot on another astronomical object, the Moon. Unmanned probes have been sent to all the known planets in the solar system, with some (such as Voyager) having left the solar system. The Soviet Union and the United States were the primary early leaders in space exploration in the 20th Century. Five space agencies, representing over fifteen countries,[१०६] have worked together to build the International Space Station. Aboard it, there has been a continuous human presence in space since 2000.[१०७]

हे सुद्धा पहा[संपादन]

नोंदी[संपादन]

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