पुरातत्त्वशास्त्र

विकिपीडिया, मुक्‍त ज्ञानकोशातून
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ह्या लेखाचा/विभागाचा इंग्रजी किंवा अमराठी भाषेतून मराठी भाषेत भाषांतर करावयाचे बाकी आहे. अनुवाद करण्यास आपलाही सहयोग हवा आहे. ऑनलाईन शब्दकोश आणि इतर सहाय्या करिता भाषांतर प्रकल्पास भेट द्या.


साचा:For

साचा:Pp-move-indef

सुमारे २००० वर्षे जुने प्राचीन रोममधील अवशेषांचे उत्खनन करताना पुरातत्वशास्त्रज्ञांचा एक चमू.

पुरातत्त्वशास्त्र म्हणजे प्राचीन मानवी समाजाचे अध्ययन आहे. ते करण्यासाठी प्राचीन लोकांनी मागे सोडलेल्या अवशेषांचा शोध घेऊन व त्यांचे सखोल निरीक्षण करावे लागते. निरीक्षणातून मिळालेल्या माहितीचे विश्लेषण करतात. त्यासाठी त्या जुन्या कालखंडातील हवामान, भौगोलिक परिस्थिती, ज्ञात इतिहास आणि एकूणच तत्कालीन पर्यावरण विचारात घेतात. यांत अनेक गोष्टींचा अंतर्भाव असल्यामुळे, हे शास्त्र विज्ञानमानवशास्त्र अशा दोन्ही विभागांत समजले जाऊ शकते.

पुरातत्त्वशास्त्र हे मानव जातीचा इतिहास शोधते. सुमारे २.५ लाख वर्षांपूर्वी आफ्रिकेत मानवाने प्रथमतः तयार केलेल्या दगडी हत्यारापासून ते नजीकच्या काही दशकांपर्यंतच्या काळाचा अभ्यास या विषयात येतो..[१].त्याकाळचा अभास करण्यास इतिहासकारांना काहीच साधन लिखित स्वरूपात उपलब्ध नसते. हा काळ म्हणजे मानवी इतिहासाच्या एकूण काळापैकी सुमारे ९९ % काळ आहे. म्हणज्र प्रागैतिहासिक ते साक्षरतेचा प्रसार होईपर्यंतचा काळ.[२] पुरातत्त्वशास्त्राचा उद्देश मानवी उत्क्रांतीपासून ते सांस्कृतिक उत्क्रांतीपर्यंतचा सांस्कृतिक इतिहास जाणून घेणे हा आहे.[३]

पुरातत्त्वशास्त्रात खालील गोष्टींचा अंतर्भाव होतो. निरीक्षण व सर्वेक्षण, उत्खनन आणि मिळालेल्या माहितीच्या आधारे उत्खननानंतरचे विश्लेषण. यानंतर पुरातन काळाची अधिक माहिती मिळू शकते. व्यापक अर्थाने, पुरातत्त्वशास्त्र हे परस्परावलंबी शाखांतील शोधांवर अवलंबून आहे. त्या शाखा म्हणजे इतिहास, कलेचा इतिहास, वैज्ञानिक शास्त्रे, भूगर्भशास्त्र,[४][५][६] तसेच भाषाशास्त्र, भौतिकशास्त्र, माहिती विज्ञान, रसायन शास्त्र, संख्याशास्त्र, जीवशास्त्राच्या इतर शाखा पुरापर्यावरणशास्त्र(paleoecology), paleontology, पुराप्राणिशास्त्र(paleozoology), paleoethnobotany, व पुराजीव शास्त्र(paleobotany)

१९व्या शतकात युरोपमध्ये पुरातनधर्म म्हणून या शाखेचा उदय झाला. त्यानंतर संपूर्ण जगात ही एक विद्याशाखा म्हणून मान्यता पावली. शास्त्राच्या विस्तारादरम्यान अनेक विद्याशाखांचा विकास झाला. पुरातत्त्वशास्त्रास साहाय्यभूत ठरणारी अनेक वेगवेगळी वैज्ञानिक तंत्रे विकसित करण्यात आली. या शास्त्रास नकली पुरातत्त्वशास्त्र यापासून ते मानवी अवशेषांच्या उत्खननास विरोध अशा अनेक गोष्टींचा सामना करावा लागला आहे.

पुरातत्त्वशास्त्राचा इतिहास[संपादन]

मुख्य पान: History of archaeology

१९व्या शतकाचे मध्यात आधुनिक पुरातत्त्वशास्त्राचे मूळ युरोप मध्ये रुजले. भूगर्भशास्त्राच्या वैज्ञानिक प्रगतीनंतर त्याचा विकास झाला. त्यामुळे पृथ्वीचे वय केवळ हजारो वर्षे नसून कोट्यवधी वर्षे आहे हे सिद्ध झाले. यानंतर सन १८५९ मध्ये, चार्ल्स डार्विनचे 'ओरिजिन ऑफ स्पीशीज्' हे पुस्तक प्रकाशित झाले व त्याने उत्क्रांतीचा सिद्धान्त अधोरेखित झाला. ,मानवजात ही खरोखरच लाखो वर्षे जुनी आहे यावर वैज्ञानिकांना विश्वास ठेवावयाला लागला. त्यामुळे भूगर्भशास्त्र चळवळीस प्रोत्साहन मिळाले. त्यामुळे अधिकाधिक लोक या शास्त्राच्या अभ्यासात रस दाखवू लागले. दरम्यान, सन १८४८ मध्ये, डॅनिश इतिहासकार क्रिस्चियन जर्गेनेसेन थॉमसेनने 'ए गाईड टु नॉर्दर्न अ‍ॅन्टिक्विटीज' हे पुस्तक प्रकाशित केले. त्यात त्याने एक कल्पना मांडली. ती अशी की, युरोपमधील प्रागैतिहासिक काळ हा त्या काळच्या मानवांनी वापरलेल्या सामग्रीनुसार, तीन कालखंडांत विभागला जाऊ शकतो. अश्म युग, ताम्र युगलोह युग. मानवाची पौराणिकता, उत्क्रांती व हा तीन-युग-सिद्धान्त या तीन तत्त्वांवर आधुनिक पुरातत्त्वशास्त्राचे बांधकाम झाले आहे.[७]

त्यानंतर, पूर्वीच्या पुरातत्त्वशास्त्रज्ञांनी जगातील विविध स्थळांवरती संशोधन सुरू केले. हेन्‍रिच श्लिमान याने ट्रॉय येथे ईजियन संस्कृती, तसेच ऑर्थर ईव्हान्स याने क्रीट तर जॉन लॉईड स्टिफेन्स हा मायासंस्कृतीबद्दल पुनःसंशोधन करण्यात प्रमुख होता. या संशोधकांनी अवलंबिलेली पद्धत आजच्या मानकांच्या दृष्टिकोनातून बघितले असता दोषपूर्ण होती. त्यांची विचारसरणी ही अगदी युरोपधार्जिणी व पूर्वग्रहित होती.

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ह्या लेखाचा/विभागाचा इंग्रजी किंवा अमराठी भाषेतून मराठी भाषेत भाषांतर करावयाचे बाकी आहे. अनुवाद करण्यास आपलाही सहयोग हवा आहे. ऑनलाईन शब्दकोश आणि इतर सहाय्या करिता भाषांतर प्रकल्पास भेट द्या.



Soon the early archaeologists began to investigate various areas around the world, with the study of ancient Aegean civilization being stimulated by the excavations of Heinrich Schliemann at Troy, and of Arthur Evans at Crete, whilst John Lloyd Stephens was a pivotal figure in the rediscovery of माया सभ्यता throughout Central America. However, the methodologies employed by these archaeologists were highly flawed by today's standards, often having a eurocentric bias, and many early European archaeologists often relied on anthropological and ethnographic accounts provided by the likes of Edward Tylor and Lewis Henry Morgan, thereby comparing contemporary "savage" peoples like the Native Americans with the historical peoples of Europe who lived in similar societies.[८] Soon the new discipline of archaeology spread to North America, where it was taken up by figures like Samuel Haven and William Henry Holmes, whom excavated ancient Native American monuments.[९]

पुरातात्वशास्त्राचा खरा विकास १९व्या शतकाच्या शेवटी होऊ लागला. त्यावेळी ऑगस्टस पीट रिव्हर्स याने दक्षिण इंग्लंड मध्ये क्रानबोर्न चेज येथे पद्धतशीररीत्या उत्खनन करून हे दर्शविले की, तेथील उत्खननातील सौंदर्य व मूल्य हेच महत्त्वाचे नाहीत तर सापडणारी प्रत्येक वस्तू ही अमूल्य आहे. या विद्याशाखेत नंतर काही संशोधकांनी १९व्या शतकाच्या अखेरीस व २०व्या शतकाच्या सुरुवातीला झळाळी आणली. इजिप्तपॅलेस्टाइन येथे सर विल्यम फ्लिंडर्स पेट्री यांनी उत्खनन केले तर भारतात सर मोरटाइमर व्हीलर यांनी.[१०]

सिद्धान्त[संपादन]

मुख्य पान: Archaeological theory

पुरातत्त्वशास्त्रीय सिद्धान्त

उद्देश[संपादन]

दक्षिण आफ्रिका येथे शोधलेली टाँग मुलाची कवटी. पुरातत्त्वशास्त्राशिवाय आपण मानवाची उत्क्रांती कशी झाली हे समजूच शकत नाही.

प्रागैतिहासिक काळाबद्दल जाणून घ्यायचे असल्यास पुरातत्त्वशास्त्र हा एकच मार्ग उपलब्ध आहे.मानवाची उत्क्रांती ही याच प्रागैतिहासिक काळात घडली. पुरातत्त्वशास्त्र हे मानवाच्या अनेक तांत्रिकदृष्ट्या झालेल्या विकासावर प्रकाश टाकते. उदा० अग्नी (क्षेपणास्त्र)चा वापर करण्याची कल्पना, दगडांच्या हत्यारांचा विकास, धातुशास्त्राचा शोध, धर्माची सुरुवात व शेतीची सुरुवात इत्यादी. जुन्या काळातील या मानवजातीत घडलेल्या उत्क्रांतीबद्दल व तांत्रिकदृष्ट्या झालेल्या बदलाबद्दल पुरातत्त्वशास्त्राच्या मदतीशिवाय आपण काहीच जाणू शकणार नाही.[११]

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ह्या लेखाचा/विभागाचा इंग्रजी किंवा अमराठी भाषेतून मराठी भाषेत भाषांतर करावयाचे बाकी आहे. अनुवाद करण्यास आपलाही सहयोग हवा आहे. ऑनलाईन शब्दकोश आणि इतर सहाय्या करिता भाषांतर प्रकल्पास भेट द्या.



However it is not only prehistoric, pre-literate cultures which can be studied using archaeology, but historic, literate cultures as well, through the sub-discipline of historical archaeology. For many literate cultures, such as Ancient Greece and Mesopotamia, their surviving records are often incomplete and invariably biased to some extent. In many societies, literacy was restricted to the elite classes, such as the clergy or the bureaucracy of court or temple. The literacy even of aristocrats has sometimes been restricted to deeds and contracts. The interests and world-view of elites are often quite different from the lives and interests of the populace. Writings that were produced by people more representative of the general population were unlikely to find their way into libraries and be preserved there for posterity. Thus, written records tend to reflect the biases, assumptions, cultural values and possibly deceptions of a limited range of individuals, usually a small fraction of the larger population. Hence, written records cannot be trusted as a sole source. The material record is closer to a fair representation of society, though it is subject to its own inaccuracies, such as sampling bias and differential preservation.[ संदर्भ हवा ]

विविध मार्ग[संपादन]

सर्व पुरातत्त्वशास्त्रज्ञांची एखाद्या पुरातत्त्वशास्त्रीय सिद्धान्तास चिकटून राहण्यास एकवाक्यता नाही. १९व्या शतकात जेव्हा या शास्त्राचा विकास होत होता त्यावेळेस सांस्कृतिक इतिहास पुरातत्त्वशास्त्र हा सिद्धान्त प्रथम प्रतिपादला गेला. त्याचे ध्येय, संस्कृती का व कशी बदलली यावरील विवेचन आणि त्यांनी केलेल्या कामांचे उदात्तीकरण एवढाच होता.[१२] २०व्या शतकाच्या सुरुवातीस ज्या संशोधकांनी पूर्वीच्या समाजाचा अभ्यास केला, त्यांनी ते दुवे सरळ सध्या अस्तित्वात असलेल्या समाजाशी जोडले.(जसे अमेरिकेतील रहिवासी, सायबेरियातील लोक, मेसोपोटेमियातील लोक इत्यादी). त्यांनी पूर्वीच्या संस्कृतीची व सध्याच्या संस्कृतीची तुलनाच केली.[१२] १९६०व्या दशकात ल्युविस बिनफोर्ड, केंट फ्लॉनेरी सारख्या अमेरिकेन संशोधकांनी सुरू केलेल्या एका मोहिमेत याविरुद्ध एकप्रकारचा लढाच पुकारला.[१३][१४] त्यांनी "नवीन पुरातत्त्वशास्त्र" प्रस्तावित केले. हे नवे शास्त्र "वैज्ञानिकदृष्ट्या" सक्षम व वैज्ञानिक पद्धतीवरच अवलंबून असून, परीक्षण करून कारणमीमांसा देणारे होते. त्यापैकी एक भाग processual archaeology म्हणून ओळखला जाऊ लागला.[१२]

सन १९८०मध्ये जी अत्याधुनिक मोहीम सुरू झाली तिचा प्रमुख ब्रिटिश पुरातत्त्वशास्त्रज्ञ 'मायकल शांक्स' होता. [१५][१६][१७][१८] Christopher Tilley,[१९] Daniel Miller,[२०][२१] and Ian Hodder,[२२][२३][२४][२५][२६][२७] ती मोहीम पुढे post-processual archaeology म्हणून ओळखली जाऊ लागली. त्यांनी जुन्या पद्धतीवर प्रश्नचिन्ह लावले व स्वयं-सिद्धान्त प्रतिक्रियेचे महत्त्व विशद केले.[ संदर्भ हवा ] यामुळे विवाद उत्पन झाला व तो अजूनही सुरूच आहे. मध्यंतरी, एक वेगळाच सिद्धान्त समोर आला. [२८] पुरातत्त्वशास्त्रीय सिद्धान्त हे सध्या अनेक प्रभावांखाली आहेत. उदा० डार्विनचा उत्क्रांतिवादाचा सिद्धान्त, Archaeological theory now borrows from a wide range of influences, including neo-Darwinian evolutionary thought, phenomenology, postmodernism, agency theory, cognitive science, Functionalism, gender-based and Feminist archaeology, and Systems theory.

प्रकार[संपादन]

पुरातत्त्वशास्त्रीय संशोधन हे बहुधा अनेक टप्प्यांचे बनलेले असते. त्यापैकी प्रत्येक टप्पा वेगवेगळी पद्धती अवलंबतो. कोणतेही प्रत्यक्ष काम सुरू करण्याआधी, पुरातत्त्वशास्त्रज्ञांना स्पष्टपणे कोणते ध्येय गाठावयाचे आहे यावर एकमत व्हावयास हवे. हे केल्यावर त्याने त्या व सभोवतालच्या क्षेत्राची जास्तीत जास्त माहिती होऊ शकेल अशा रीतीने त्या जागेचे सर्वेक्षण व्हावयास हवे. दुसरे, पुरातत्वशास्त्रीय घटकांना जमिनीतून काढण्यासाठी उत्खनन करावे लागू शकते. तिसरे, त्यातून प्राप्त माहिती ही अभ्यासून व तिचे मूल्य निश्चित करून मूळ संशोधनाचे उद्दिष्ट समोर ठेऊन तपासली जावयास हवी. प्राप्त माहितीचे प्रकाशन करणे हे चांगले समजले जाते. असे केल्यानंतर ही माहिती पुरातत्त्वशास्त्रज्ञांना व इतिहासकारांना उपल्ब्ध होऊ शकेल. पण सर्वसाधारणपणे अशीप् रसिद्धी टाळलीजाते.[२९]

सर्वेक्षण[संपादन]

मुख्य पान: Archaeological survey
माँट अल्बानचे पुरातत्वशास्त्रिय क्षेत्र

आधुनिक पुरातत्त्वशास्त्रीय प्रकल्प हा सर्वेक्षणाने सुरू होतो. क्षेत्रीय सर्वेक्षण हे त्या क्षेत्रात असलेल्या, पूर्वी न कळलेल्या जागा पद्धतशीरपणे जाणून घेण्याचा एक प्रयास आहे. त्यामुळे त्या जागेत असलेली घरे व इतर बाबी जाणून घेता येतात. पुरातत्त्वशास्त्राच्या प्राथमिक दिवसांत सर्वेक्षण केले जात नसे. सांस्कृतिक इतिहासकार व आधीचे संशोधक हे त्या जागेतील ठळकपणे दिसणाऱ्या गोष्टीच उत्खनन करून काढीत असत. गॉर्डन विली या संशोधकाने सन १९४९ मध्ये सर्वेक्षणाचे तंत्र पेरू देशातील विरू खोऱ्यात उत्खनन करतांना विकसित केले. [३०][३१] व त्यानुसार प्रत्येक पातळीचे सर्वेक्षण ठळकपणे पुरातत्त्वशास्त्रात समोर आले.[३२] प्राथमिक काम म्हणून सर्वेक्षणाचे अनेक फायदे आहेत.त्यास त्यामानाने कमी पैसा व वेळ लागतो, कारण त्यात अवशेष शोधण्यास मोठ्या प्रमाणात मातीची उलाढाल व प्रक्रिया करावी लागत नाही. जास्त मोठ्या जागेचे सर्वेक्षण हे खर्चिक असू शकते म्हणून काही संशोधक सँपल सर्व्हे करतात.[३३] दिवंगत लोकांच्या समाध्या वा कबरींच्या बाबतीत स्थळाचा नाश वाचविण्यासाठी, तोडफोड करून सर्वेक्षण करण्यात येत नाही. As with other forms of non-destructive archaeology, survey avoids ethical issues (of particular concern to descendant peoples) associated with destroying a site through excavation. It is the only way to gather some forms of information, such as settlement patterns and settlement structure. Survey data are commonly assembled into maps, which may show surface features and/or artifact distribution. यात सर्वांत सोपा मार्ग म्हणजे पृष्ठभागाचे सर्वेक्षण. यात क्षेत्राचे पायी वा वाहनांच्या साहाय्याने विंचरण करणे येते. असे केल्यावर पृष्ठभागावर काही वस्तु वा अवशेष सापडू शकतात. पृष्ठभागाचे सर्वेक्षण हे जमिनीत पूर्णपणे गाडल्या गेलेल्या किंवा जेथे वनस्पतींची वाढ झाली असेल तेथील अवशेष शोधू शकत नाही. मर्यादित स्वरूपात खोदकाम करणाऱ्या उपकरणांच्या साहाय्याने वा परीक्षण खड्ड्यांचे साहाय्याने ते करता येऊ शकते. त्यात काही सापडले नाही तर ते क्षेत्र निःशेष समजले जाते.

हवाई सर्वेक्षण हे विमानांना वा बलूनला कॅमेरे लावून तर पुष्कळ वेळेस पतंगांना कॅमेरा लावूनही केले जाते. याद्वारे केलेले चित्रण हे मोठ्या क्षेत्राचे वा किचकट जागांचे त्वरित काढण्यास मदत करते. जमिनीत पुरल्या गेलेल्या मानवनिर्मित बांधकामांवर वनस्पतींची वाढ हळूहळू होते. त्यामानाने इतर ठिकाणी ती लवकर होते. गाडल्या गेलेल्या बांधकामावर उगवलेल्या धान्याच्या वनस्पती ह्या पिकल्यावर सापेक्षतेने लवकर रंग बदलतात असे दृष्टिपथात आले आहे. असे आढळल्यास ती बांधकामे जास्त अचूकतेने शोधण्यास मदत होते. दिवसाच्या वेगवेगळ्या वेळेस काढली गेलेली छायाचित्रे, सावलीच्या बदलामुळे, बांधकामांची बाह्यरेषा दाखवून कामात मदत करतात. हवाई सर्वेक्षणात अतिरक्त जमीन भेदून खाली जाण्याची क्षमता असलेली रडार तरंगलांबी, उष्माछायांकन इत्यादी तंत्रे वापरली जाऊ शकतात.

भूभौतिक सर्वेक्षण हे जमिनीखालील वस्तू बघण्याचे सर्वांत परिणामकारक तंत्र आहे.मॅग्नेटोमीटर हे जमिनीखालील लोखंडाच्या पुरावस्तू, भट्ट्या, काही प्रकारचे दगडी बांधकाम, खड्डे व उंचवटे यामुळे होणारे पृथ्वीचे चुंबकीय क्षेत्रामधील होणारे सूक्ष्म बदलही नोंदविते. जमिनीची विद्युत अवरोधकता मोजणारे उपकरणही मुक्तपणे वापरण्यात येते. ज्यांची विद्युत अवरोधकता सभोवतालच्या जमिनीच्या अवरोधकतेपेक्षा विपर्यस्त असते अशा पुरातत्त्वशास्त्रीय बाबी शोधल्या जातात व नकाशावर त्याची नोंद केली जाते. दगडी वस्तु वा विटा असल्या काही पुरातत्त्वशास्त्रीय गोष्टींची विद्युत अवरोधकता साधारण जमिनीपेक्षा जास्त असते. या उलट, जैविक लेपन वा न भाजलेली माती यांची विद्युत अवरोधकता कमी असते.

जरी काही पुरातत्त्वशास्त्रज्ञ धातु शोधक यंत्राचा वापर खजिन्याच्या शोधासाठी ग्राह्य धरतात?????तर काही त्यास सर्वांत परिणामकारक अवजार समजतात.Although some archaeologists consider the use of metal detectors to be tantamount to treasure hunting, others deem them an effective tool in archaeological surveying.

Translation arrow-indic.svg
ह्या लेखाचा/विभागाचा इंग्रजी किंवा अमराठी भाषेतून मराठी भाषेत भाषांतर करावयाचे बाकी आहे. अनुवाद करण्यास आपलाही सहयोग हवा आहे. ऑनलाईन शब्दकोश आणि इतर सहाय्या करिता भाषांतर प्रकल्पास भेट द्या.



Examples of formal archaeological use of metal detectors include musketball distribution analysis on English Civil War battlefields, metal distribution analysis prior to excavation of a nineteenth century ship wreck, and service cable location during evaluation. Metal detectorists have also contributed to the archaeological record where they have made detailed records of their results and refrained from raising artifacts from their archaeological context. In the UK, metal detectorists have been solicited for involvement in the Portable Antiquities Scheme.

Regional survey in underwater archaeology uses geophysical or remote sensing devices such as marine magnetometer, side-scan sonar, or sub-bottom sonar.

उत्खनन[संपादन]

मुख्य पान: Excavation (archaeology)
३८०० वर्षांपूर्वीच्या एजवॉटर पार्क,आयोवा येथे सुरु असलेले उत्खनन.
एक पुरातत्त्वशास्त्रिय उत्खनन ज्याने विल(इंसब्रुक) ऑस्ट्रेलियायेथील गुहा प्र्काशात आणल्या.
आयलंड येथील एक उत्खनन

Archaeological excavation existed even when the field was still the domain of amateurs, and it remains the source of the majority of data recovered in most field projects. It can reveal several types of information usually not accessible to survey, such as stratigraphy, three-dimensional structure, and verifiably primary context.

Modern excavation techniques require that the precise locations of objects and features, known as their provenance or provenience, be recorded. This always involves determining their horizontal locations, and sometimes vertical position as well (also see Primary Laws of Archaeology). Similarly, their association, or relationship with nearby objects and features, needs to be recorded for later analysis. This allows the archaeologist to deduce what artifacts and features were likely used together and which may be from different phases of activity. For example, excavation of a site reveals its stratigraphy; if a site was occupied by a succession of distinct cultures, artifacts from more recent cultures will lie above those from more ancient cultures.

Excavation is the most expensive phase of archaeological research, in relative terms. Also, as a destructive process, it carries ethical concerns. As a result, very few sites are excavated in their entirety. Again the percentage of a site excavated depends greatly on the country and "method statement" issued. In places 90% excavation is common. Sampling is even more important in excavation than in survey. It is common for large mechanical equipment, such as backhoes (JCBs), to be used in excavation, especially to remove the topsoil (overburden), though this method is increasingly used with great caution. Following this rather dramatic step, the exposed area is usually hand-cleaned with trowels or hoes to ensure that all features are apparent.

The next task is to form a site plan and then use it to help decide the method of excavation. Features dug into the natural subsoil are normally excavated in portions in order to produce a visible archaeological section for recording. A feature, for example a pit or a ditch, consists of two parts: the cut and the fill. The cut describes the edge of the feature, where the feature meets the natural soil. It is the feature's boundary. The fill is, understandably, what the feature is filled with, and will often appear quite distinct from the natural soil. The cut and fill are given consecutive numbers for recording purposes. Scaled plans and sections of individual features are all drawn on site, black and white and colour photographs of them are taken, and recording sheets are filled in describing the context of each. All this information serves as a permanent record of the now-destroyed archaeology and is used in describing and interpreting the site.

विश्लेषण[संपादन]

मुख्य पान: Post excavation

Once artifacts and structures have been excavated, or collected from surface surveys, it is necessary to properly study them, to gain as much data as possible. This process is known as post-excavation analysis, and is normally the most time-consuming part of the archaeological investigation. It is not uncommon for the final excavation reports on major sites to take years to be published.

At its most basic, the artifacts found are cleaned, catalogued and compared to published collections, in order to classify them typologically and to identify other sites with similar artifact assemblages. However, a much more comprehensive range of analytical techniques are available through archaeological science, meaning that artifacts can be dated and their compositions examined. The bones, plants and pollen collected from a site can all be analyzed (using the techniques of zooarchaeology, paleoethnobotany, and palynology), while any texts can usually be deciphered.

These techniques frequently provide information that would not otherwise be known and therefore contribute greatly to the understanding of a site.

Virtual archaeology[संपादन]

Some time around 1995 archaeologists started using computer graphics to build virtual 3D models of sites such as the throne roome of an ancient Assyrian palace or ancient Rome.[३४] This is done by collecting normal photographs and using computer graphics to build the virtual 3D model.[३४] More generally, computers can be used to recreate the environment and conditions of the past, such as objects, buildings, landscapes and even ancient battles.[३४] Computer simulation can be used to simulate the living conditions of an ancient community and to see how it would have reacted to various scenarios (such as how much food to grow, how many animals to slaughter, etc.)[३४] Computer-built topographical models have been combined with astronomical calculations to verify whether or not certain structures (such as pillars) were aligned with astronomical events such as the sun's position at a solstice.[३४]

Academic उपशाखा[संपादन]

मुख्य पान: Archaeological sub-disciplines

As with most academic disciplines, there are a very large number of archaeological sub-disciplines characterised by a specific method or type of material (e.g. lithic analysis, music, archaeobotany), geographical or chronological focus (e.g. Near Eastern archaeology, Medieval archaeology), other thematic concern (e.g. maritime archaeology, landscape archaeology, battlefield archaeology), or a specific archaeological culture or civilisation (e.g. Egyptology, Indology, Sinology).

Historical archaeology[संपादन]

Historical archaeology is the study of cultures with some form of writing.

In इंग्लंड, archaeologists have uncovered the long-lost layouts of medieval villages abandoned after the crises of the 14th century and the equally lost layouts of 17th century parterre gardens swept away by a change in fashion.[ संदर्भ हवा ] In downtown New York City archaeologists have exhumed the 18th century remains of the African burial ground.

Ethnoarchaeology[संपादन]

Ethnoarchaeology is the archaeological study of living people.[३५][३६][३७][३८][३९][४०] The approach gained notoriety during the emphasis on middle range theory that was a feature of the processual movement of the 1960s. Early ethnoarchaeological research focused on hunting and gathering or foraging societies. Ethnoarchaeology continues to be a vibrant component of post-processual and other current archaeological approaches.[४१][४२][४३][४४] Ethnoarchaeology is the use of ethnography to increase and improve analogs, which are then used as analogies to interpret the archaeological record. In short, ethnoarchaeology is the application of ethnography to archaeology.[४५]

Experimental archaeology[संपादन]

मुख्य पान: Experimental archaeology

Experimental archaeology represents the application of the experimental method to develop more highly controlled observations of processes that create and impact the archaeological record.[४६][४७][४८][४९][५०] In the context of the logical positivism of processualism with its goals of improving the scientific rigor of archaeological epistemologies the experimental method gained importance. Experimental techniques remain a crucial component to improving the inferential frameworks for interpreting the archaeological record.

Archaeometry[संपादन]

Archaeometry is a field of study that aims to systematize archaeological measurement. It emphasizes the application of analytical techniques from physics, chemistry, and engineering. It is a lively field of research that frequently focuses on the definition of the chemical composition of archaeological remains for source analysis.[५१] A relatively nascent subfield is that of archaeological materials, designed to enhance understanding of prehistoric and non-industrial culture through scientific analysis of the structure and properties of materials associated with human activity.[५२]

Cultural resources management[संपादन]

साचा:Original research

While archaeology can be done as a pure science, it can also be an applied science, namely the study of archaeological sites that are threatened by development. In such cases, archaeology is a subsidiary activity within Cultural resources management (CRM), also called heritage management in the United Kingdom.[५३] Today, CRM accounts for most of the archaeological research done in the United States and much of that in western Europe as well. In the US, CRM archaeology has been a growing concern since the passage of the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) of 1966, and most taxpayers, scholars, and politicians believe that CRM has helped preserve much of that nation's history and prehistory that would have otherwise been lost in the expansion of cities, dams, and highways. Along with other statutes, the NHPA mandates that projects on federal land or involving federal funds or permits consider the effects of the project on each archaeological site.

The application of CRM in the United Kingdom is not limited to government-funded projects. Since 1990 PPG 16[५४] has required planners to consider archaeology as a material consideration in determining applications for new development. As a result, numerous archaeological organisations undertake mitigation work in advance of (or during) construction work in archaeologically sensitive areas, at the developer's expense.

In England, ultimate responsibility of care for the historic environment rests with the Department for Culture, Media and Sport[५५] in association with English Heritage.[५६] In Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, the same responsibilities lie with Historic Scotland,[५७] Cadw[५८] and the Northern Ireland Environment Agency[५९] respectively.

Among the goals of CRM are the identification, preservation, and maintenance of cultural sites on public and private lands, and the removal of culturally valuable materials from areas where they would otherwise be destroyed by human activity, such as proposed construction. This study involves at least a cursory examination to determine whether or not any significant archaeological sites are present in the area affected by the proposed construction. If these do exist, time and money must be allotted for their excavation. If initial survey and/or test excavation indicates the presence of an extraordinarily valuable site, the construction may be prohibited entirely. CRM is a thriving entity, especially in the United States and Europe where archaeologists from private companies and all levels of government engage in the practice of their discipline.

Cultural resources management has, however, been criticized. CRM is conducted by private companies that bid for projects by submitting proposals outlining the work to be done and an expected budget. It is not unheard-of for the agency responsible for the construction to simply choose the proposal that asks for the least funding. CRM archaeologists face considerable time pressure, often being forced to complete their work in a fraction of the time that might be allotted for a purely scholarly endeavour. Compounding the time pressure is the vetting process of site reports which are required (in the US) to be submitted by CRM firms to the appropriate State Historic Preservation Office (SHPO). From the SHPO's perspective there is to be no difference between a report submitted by a CRM firm operating under a deadline, and a multi-year academic project. The end result is that for a Cultural Resource Management archaeologist to be successful, they must be able to produce academic quality documents at a corporate world pace.

The annual ratio of open academic archaeology positions (inclusive of Post-Doc, temporary, and non tenure track appointments) to the annual number of archaeology MA/MSc and PhD students is grossly disproportionate. This dearth of academic positions causes a predictable excess of well educated individuals who join the ranks of the following year's crop of non-academically employed archaeologists. Cultural Resource Management, once considered an intellectual backwater for individuals with "strong backs and weak minds"[६०] has reaped the benefit of this massive pool of well educated professionals. This results in CRM offices increasingly staffed by advance degreed individuals with a track record of producing scholarly articles but who have the notches on their trowels to show they have been in the trenches as a shovelbum.

Popular views of archaeology[संपादन]

Extensive excavations at Bet She'an, Israel

Early archaeology was largely an attempt to uncover spectacular artifacts and features, or to explore vast and mysterious abandoned cities. Such pursuits continue to fascinate the public. Books, films, and video games, such as The City of Brass, King Solomon's Mines, Indiana Jones, Tomb Raider, The Mummy and Relic Hunter all testify to the public's interest in the discovery aspect of archaeology.

Much thorough and productive research has indeed been conducted in dramatic locales such as Copán and the Valley of the Kings, but the bulk of activities and finds of modern archaeology are not so sensational. Archaeological adventure stories tend to ignore the painstaking work involved in carrying out modern survey, excavation, and data processing. Some archaeologists refer to such portrayals as "pseudoarchaeology".

Archaeology has been portrayed in the mainstream media in sensational ways. This has its advantages and disadvantages. Many practitioners point to the childhood excitement of Indiana Jones films and Tomb Raider video games as the inspiration for them to enter the field.[ संदर्भ हवा ] Archaeologists are also very much reliant on public support, the question of exactly who they are doing their work for is often discussed.[६१]

सध्याचे मुद्दे व विवाद[संपादन]

Public archaeology[संपादन]

Motivated by a desire to halt looting, curb pseudoarchaeology, and to help preserve archaeological sites through education and fostering public appreciation for the importance of archaeological heritage, archaeologists are mounting public-outreach campaigns.[६२] They seek to stop looting by combatting people who illegally take artifacts from protected sites, and by alerting people who live near archaeological sites of the threat of looting. Common methods of public outreach include press releases, and the encouragement of school field trips to sites under excavation by professional archaeologists.[ संदर्भ हवा ] Public appreciation of the significance of archaeology and archaeological sites often leads to improved protection from encroaching development or other threats.

One audience for archaeologists' work is the public. They increasingly realize that their work can benefit non-academic and non-archaeological audiences, and that they have a responsibility to educate and inform the public about archaeology. Local heritage awareness is aimed at increasing civic and individual pride through projects such as community excavation projects, and better public presentations of archaeological sites and knowledge.[ संदर्भ हवा ] The U.S.Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service(USFS) operates a volunteer archaeology and historic preservation program called the Passport in Time (PIT). Volunteers work with professional USFS archaeologists and historians on national forests throughout the U.S. Volunteers are involved in all aspects of professional archaeology under expert supervision.[६३]

In the UK, popular archaeology programs such as Time Team and Meet the Ancestors have resulted in a huge upsurge in public interest.[ संदर्भ हवा ] Where possible, archaeologists now make more provisions for public involvement and outreach in larger projects than they once did, and many local archaeological organizations operate within the Community archaeology framework to expand public involvement in smaller-scale, more local projects. Archaeological excavation, however, is best undertaken by well-trained staff that can work quickly and accurately. Often this requires observing the necessary health and safety and indemnity insurance issues involved in working on a modern building site with tight deadlines. Certain charities and local government bodies sometimes offer places on research projects either as part of academic work or as a defined community project.[ संदर्भ हवा ] There is also a flourishing industry selling places on commercial training excavations and archaeological holiday tours.[ संदर्भ हवा ]

Archaeologists prize local knowledge and often liaise with local historical and archaeological societies, which is one reason why Community archaeology projects are starting to become more common. Often archaeologists are assisted by the public in the locating of archaeological sites, which professional archaeologists have neither the funding, nor the time to do.

Pseudoarchaeology[संपादन]

मुख्य पान: Pseudoarchaeology

Pseudoarchaeology is an umbrella term for all activities that claim to be archaeological but in fact violate commonly accepted and scientific archaeological practices. It includes much fictional archaeological work (discussed above), as well as some actual activity. Many non-fiction authors have ignored the scientific methods of processual archaeology, or the specific critiques of it contained in post-processualism.

An example of this type is the writing of Erich von Däniken. His 1968 book, Chariots of the Gods?, together with many subsequent lesser-known works, expounds a theory of ancient contacts between human civilisation on Earth and more technologically advanced extraterrestrial civilisations. This theory, known as palaeocontact theory, or Ancient astronaut theory, is not exclusively Däniken's, nor did the idea originate with him. Works of this nature are usually marked by the renunciation of well-established theories on the basis of limited evidence and the interpretation of evidence with a preconceived theory in mind.

लूट[संपादन]

चित्र:Looting rontoy2007.jpg
A looter's pit on the morning following its excavation, taken at Rontoy, Huaura Valley, Peru in June 2007. Several small holes left by looters' prospecting probes can be seen, as well as their footprints.
Stela of a king named Adad-Nirari. Object stolen from the Iraq National Museum in the looting in connection with the Iraq war of 2003.

Looting of archaeological sites is an ancient problem. For instance, many of the tombs of the Egyptian pharaohs were looted during antiquity.[६४] Archaeology stimulates interest in ancient objects, and people in search of artifacts or treasure cause damage to archaeological sites. The commercial and academic demand for artifacts unfortunately contributes directly to the illicit antiquities trade. Smuggling of antiquities abroad to private collectors has caused great cultural and economic damage in many countries whose governments lack the resources and or the will to deter it. Looters damage and destroy archaeological sites, denying future generations information about their ethnic and cultural heritage. Indigenous peoples especially lose access to and control over their 'cultural resources', ultimately denying them the opportunity to know their past.[६५]

Popular consciousness often associates looting with poor Third World countries,[ संदर्भ हवा ] but this is a false assumption.[६५] A lack of financial resources and political will are chronic worldwide problems inhibiting more effective protection of archaeological sites. Many Native American Indians today, such as Vine Deloria, Jr., consider any removal of cultural artifacts from a Native American Indian site to be theft, and much of professional archaeology as academic looting.

In 1937 W. F. Hodge the Director of the Southwest Museum in Los Angeles CA, released a statement that the museum would no longer purchase or accept collections from looted contexts.[६६] The first conviction of the transport of artifacts illegally removed from private property under the Archaeological Resources Protection Act (ARPA; Public Law 96-95; 93 Statute 721; 16 U.S.C. 470aamm) was in 1992 in the State of Indiana.[६७]

मृत मानव[संपादन]

In the United States, examples such as the case of Kennewick Man have illustrated the tensions between Native Americans and archaeologists which can be summarized as a conflict between a need to remain respectful towards burials sacred sites and the academic benefit from studying them. For years, American archaeologists dug on Indian burial grounds and other places considered sacred, removing artifacts and human remains to storage facilities for further study. In some cases human remains were not even thoroughly studied but instead archived rather than reburied. Furthermore, Western archaeologists' views of the past often differ from those of tribal peoples. The West views time as linear; for many natives, it is cyclic. From a Western perspective, the past is long-gone; from a native perspective, disturbing the past can have dire consequences in the present.

As a consequence of this, American Indians attempted to prevent archaeological excavation of sites inhabited by their ancestors, while American archaeologists believed that the advancement of scientific knowledge was a valid reason to continue their studies. This contradictory situation was addressed by the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA, 1990), which sought to reach a compromise by limiting the right of research institutions to possess human remains. Due in part to the spirit of postprocessualism, some archaeologists have begun to actively enlist the assistance of indigenous peoples likely to be descended from those under study.

Archaeologists have also been obliged to re-examine what constitutes an archaeological site in view of what native peoples believe to constitute sacred space. To many native peoples, natural features such as lakes, mountains or even individual trees have cultural significance. Australian archaeologists especially have explored this issue and attempted to survey these sites in order to give them some protection from being developed. Such work requires close links and trust between archaeologists and the people they are trying to help and at the same time study.

While this cooperation presents a new set of challenges and hurdles to fieldwork, it has benefits for all parties involved. Tribal elders cooperating with archaeologists can prevent the excavation of areas of sites that they consider sacred, while the archaeologists gain the elders' aid in interpreting their finds. There have also been active efforts to recruit aboriginal peoples directly into the archaeological profession.

Repatriation[संपादन]

See Repatriation and reburial of human remains

A new trend in the heated controversy between First Nations groups and scientists is the repatriation of native artifacts to the original descendants. An example of this occurred June 21, 2005, when community members and elders from a number of the 10 Algonquian nations in the Ottawa area convened on the Kitigan Zibi reservation near Maniwaki, Quebec, to inter ancestral human remains and burial goods — some dating back 6,000 years. It was not determined, however, if the remains were directly related to the Algonquin people who now inhabit the region. The remains may be of Iroquoian ancestry, since Iroquoian people inhabited the area before the Algonquin. Alternatively, the oldest of these remains might have no relation at all to the Algonquin or Iroquois, and belong to an earlier culture who previously inhabited the area.

The remains and artifacts, including jewelry, tools and weapons, were originally excavated from various sites in the Ottawa Valley, including Morrison and the Allumette Islands. They had been part of the Canadian Museum of Civilization’s research collection for decades, some since the late 1800s. Elders from various Algonquin communities conferred on an appropriate reburial, eventually deciding on traditional redcedar and birchbark boxes lined with redcedar chips, muskrat and beaver pelts.

Now, an inconspicuous rock mound marks the reburial site where close to 90 boxes of various sizes are buried, no further scientific study is possible. Although negotiations were at times tense between the Kitigan Zibi community and museum, they were able to reach agreement.[६८]

Kennewick Man is another repatriation candidate that has been the source of heated debate.

हेही पाहा[संपादन]

हे ही पाहा[संपादन]

मुख्य पान: Outline of archaeology

नाँदी[संपादन]

  1. Wainright, Martin. "Archaeologists dig into Greenham peace camp" in The Guardian
  2. त्रूटी उधृत करा: <ref> चुकीचा कोड; Renfrew_Bahn1991 नावाने दिलेल्या संदर्भांमध्ये काहीही माहिती नाही
  3. (2002) Thinking from things: essays in the philosophy of archaeology. Berkeley: University of California Press, पृ. 31. आय.एस.बी.एन. 0-520-22361-6. 
  4. Gladfelter (1977)
  5. Watters (1992)
  6. Watters (2000)
  7. Renfrew and Bahn (2004 [1991]:26)
  8. Renfrew and Bahn (2004 [1991]:29)
  9. Renfrew and Bahn (2004 [1991]:30-31)
  10. Renfrew and Bahn (2004 [1991]:33-35)
  11. Kevin Greene - Archaeology: an Introduction
  12. १२.० १२.१ १२.२ Trigger (1989)
  13. Binford (1962)
  14. Flannery (1967)
  15. Shanks and Tilley (1987)
  16. Shanks and Tilley (1988)
  17. Shanks (1991)
  18. Shanks (1993)
  19. Tilley (1993)
  20. Miller and Tilley1984
  21. Miller et al. (1989)
  22. Hodder (1982)
  23. Hodder (1985)
  24. Hodder (1987)
  25. Hodder (1990)
  26. Hodder (1991)
  27. Hodder (1992)
  28. Pauketat (2001)
  29. Renfrew and Bahn (2004 [1991]:75)
  30. Willey (1953)
  31. Willey (1968)
  32. Billman and Feinman (1999)
  33. Redman (1974)
  34. ३४.० ३४.१ ३४.२ ३४.३ ३४.४ Michael Bawaya, "Virtual Archaeologists Recreate Parts of Ancient Worlds", Science, 8 January 2010, vol. 327, p. 140.
  35. Gould (1971a)
  36. Gould (1971b)
  37. Yellen (1972)
  38. Yellen (1977)
  39. Gould and Yellen 1987
  40. Yellen (1991)
  41. Sillet et al. (2006)
  42. Schott and Sillitoe (2005)
  43. Ogundele (2005)
  44. Kuznar (2001)
  45. Ashcer (1961) as cited in Wylie (1985)
  46. Ascher (1961)
  47. Saraydar and Shimada (1971)
  48. Saraydar and Shimada (1973)
  49. Gifford-Gonzalez (1985)
  50. Frison (1989)
  51. Glascock et al. 1994
  52. MIT Archaeological Materials and CMRAE Mission Statement[मृत दुवा]
  53. The University of Exeter - SoGAER - Department of Archaeology, Sogaer.ex.ac.uk, 2008-10-28, <http://www.sogaer.ex.ac.uk/archaeology/modules/arc3600.shtml>. Retrieved on ५ मे २००९ 
  54. Planning Policy Guidance 16: Archaeology and planning - Planning, building and the environment - Communities and Local Government. Web.archive.org. 2009-07-25 रोजी पाहिले.
  55. Department for Culture Media and Sport - historic environment, Culture.gov.uk, 2009-04-28, <http://www.culture.gov.uk/what_we_do/Historic_environment/>. Retrieved on ५ मे २००९ 
  56. English Heritage - Stonehenge & the History of England: English Heritage, English Heritage<!, <http://www.english-heritage.org.uk>. Retrieved on ५ मे २००९ 
  57. Bot generated title ->, Historic Scotland<!, <http://www.historic-scotland.gov.uk/>. Retrieved on ५ मे २००९ 
  58. Cadw, Cadw.wales.gov.uk, <http://www.cadw.wales.gov.uk/default.asp>. Retrieved on ५ मे २००९ 
  59. Built Environment, Ehsni.gov.uk, <http://www.ehsni.gov.uk/built.htm>. Retrieved on ५ मे २००९ 
  60. Flannery (1982)
  61. Denning 2004, Internet Archaeology 15
  62. Anthropological Studies Center (ASC), Sonoma.edu, <http://www.sonoma.edu/asc/roadshow.html>. Retrieved on ५ मे २००९ 
  63. ^ Rapid City Journal Published Online: 14 Nov 2008
  64. Time Life Lost Civilizations series: Ramses II: Magnificence on the Nile (1993)
  65. ६५.० ६५.१ Sheets (1973)
  66. Hodge (1937)
  67. Munson et al. (1995)
  68. Canadian Geographic Online, <http://www.canadiangeographic.ca/magazine/SO05/indepth/archaeology.asp> 

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