पल्लव वंश

विकिपीडिया, मुक्‍त ज्ञानकोशातून

Pallava Dynasty
Pallava territories.png
Pallavas c.645 CE during Narasimhavarman I
Official languages Tamil
Capital Kanchipuram
Government Monarchy
Clan
Preceding state Satavahana, Kalabhras
Succeeding states Cholas, Eastern Chalukyas

राजांची कामगिरी[संपादन]

इसवी सनाच्या चौथ्या शतकाच्या सुरूवातीला शिवस्कंदवर्मा या पल्लव राजाने कृष्णेपासून पेन्नार नदीपर्यंतचा प्रदेश जिंकून आपल्या अधिपत्याखाली आणला. त्याच्यानंतरच्या विष्णुगोप या कांचीच्या पल्लव राजाचा समुद्रगुप्ताने पराभव केला. पुढे दिडशे वर्षे या भागात अराजक माजले पण सिंहविष्णु अवनीसिंह या राजाने अराजकाचा नाश करून पल्लवांची सत्ता पुन्हा प्रस्थापित केली. त्याने चोळांचा पराभव करून तोंडमंडलम जिंकले. त्याने कलभ्र, पांड्य, चेर यांचा पराभव करून सिलोनच्या राजाचाही पराभव केला. याच्यामुळेच सार्वभौमत्वाच्या चढाओढीत पल्लवांचे पदार्पण झाले.

सिंहविष्णु अवनीसिंहानंतर गादीवर आलेला त्याचा मुलगा पहिला महेंद्रवर्मन याने दक्षिणेत तिरुचिरापल्लीपर्यंत आपली सत्ता वाढवली. याने चैत्यकारी, चित्रकारपुली, मत्तविलास, विचित्रचित्त या पदव्या धारण केलेल्या होत्या. याने आपल्या कालखंडात अनेक देवळे बांधली. महेंद्रवाडी हे गाव वसविले व तेथे महेंद्र तलाव बांधला. त्याच तलावाच्या काठावर एक विष्णुमंदिर बांधले. याच मंदिरावरील शिलालेखात हे विटाविरहित, लाकूडविरहित, धातूविरहित व चुनाविरहित मंदिर विचित्रचित्तराजाने खोदविले असा उल्लेख आहे. महाराष्ट्रातील चालुक्य राजांशी पहिल्या महेंद्रवर्मनाला अनेक वर्षे झगडावे लागले. चालुक्य राजा पुलकेशी दुसरा याने महेंद्रवर्मनाचा पराभव केला होता. पहिल्या महेंद्रवर्मनानंतर त्याचा पुत्र पहिला नरसिंहवर्मा गादीवर आला. त्याने इ.स. ६४२ मध्ये दुसर्या पुलकेशीचा पराभव करून त्याला युद्धात ठार मारले. त्यानिमित्त त्याने महामल्लवातापिकोंड या पदव्या धारण केल्या. सिलोनवर दोनदा नाविक स्वार्या केल्या होत्या.

महत्त्वाचे राजे[संपादन]

महेंद्रवर्मन[संपादन]

सिंहविष्णुच्या मृत्यूनंतर त्याचा मुलगा महेंद्रवर्मन हा पल्लवांचा राजा झाला. त्याने तमिळआंध्रप्रदेशात आपला राज्यविस्तार केला. चालुक्य राजा पुलकेशीने पल्लवांचे वेंगीचे राज्य जिंकून घेऊन राजधानी कांचीवर प्रभुत्त्व निर्माण केले त्यामुळे महेंद्रवर्मनला माघार घ्यावी लागली. महेंद्रवर्मनाने त्रिचनापल्ली, चिंगलपूरअर्काट जिल्ह्यात अनेक मंदिरे बांधली. महेंद्रवाडीजवळ एका भव्य जलाशयाची निर्मिती केली. महेंद्रवर्मनने चेत्याकारी (मंदिर निर्माता), चित्रकारपुल्ली (चित्रकारातील चित्ता) व विचित्र चित्त (अलौकिक बुद्धिचा) अशा पदव्या धारण केलेल्या होत्या.

महामल्ल नरसिंहवर्मन[संपादन]

परमेश्वरवर्मन[संपादन]

पल्लवांची स्थापत्यकला[संपादन]

जगप्रसिद्ध माम्मळपुरमची (महाबलीपुरम) आणि कांचीपुरमची मंदिरे पल्लव राजांनी बांधली. मद्रासपासून अठ्ठावन्न किलोमीटर अंतरावर माम्मळपुरमची मंदिरे आहेत. येथे दहा मंदिरे असून ती पल्लव राजा नरसिंहवर्मनने बांधली. येथे त्रिमुर्ती, वराह, दुर्गा, गणेश, पिंडारी व पाच पांडवांची मंदिरे आहेत. त्यांना धर्मराज, अर्जुन, भीम, सहदेवद्रौपदी रथ अशी नावे आहेत. याच मंदिरात अर्जुन तपस्य व गंगावतरण ही प्रेक्षणीय शिल्पे आहेत. गुहास्थापत्यामधून मंदिरस्थापत्याचे परिवर्तन पल्लवकलेने घडवून आणले.

पल्लव आणि चालुक्य यांच्यातील संघर्ष[संपादन]

इ.स.चे ६ वे शतक ते इ.स.चे ८ वे शतक भारतातील राजकीय इतिहासाचा प्रमुख रोख पल्लव व बदामीचे चालुक्य यांच्यात श्रेष्ठत्वासाठी चाललेल्या झगड्याभोवती केंद्रीत होता. कृष्णातुंगभद्रा या दोन नद्यांमधील प्रदेशावर प्रभुत्व मिळविण्यासाठी दोन्हीही सत्तांचे प्रयत्न चालू असत. पल्लव राजांनी अनेक वेळा तुंगभद्रा नदी ओलांडून जाण्याचा प्रयत्न केला. हा संघर्ष कधी एकाला तर कधी दुसर्याला विजय मिळवून देत दीर्घकाळ चालू राहिला.

दीर्घकाळ चाललेल्या या संघर्षातील महत्त्वाची घटना चालुक्य नरेश दुसरा पुलकेशी याच्या काळात घडली. त्याने कदंबांची राजधानी बाणावसी आपल्या अमलाखाली आणली व म्हैसूरच्या गंग राजांना आपल्या अधिराज्यत्वाला मान्यता देण्यास भाग पाडले. या संघर्षातदुसरा पुलकेशी जवळजवळ पल्लवांच्या राजधानीपर्यंत पोहोचला होता पण पल्लवांनी त्यांचे उत्तरेकडिल प्रांत पुलकेशीला देऊन टाकले. हाच प्रदेश वेंगी नावाने ओळखला जातो. चालुक्यांनी आपल्या घराण्याची एक शाखा येथे स्थापन केली तीच शाखा वेंगीचे पूर्वेकडील चालुक्य म्हणून ओळखली जाते.

पल्लवांच्या प्रदेशावर दुसर्या पुलकेशीने केलेले दुसरे आक्रमण मात्र अयशस्वी ठरले. या आक्रमणावेळी पल्लव राजा नरसिंहवर्मन याने इ.स. ६४२ च्या सुमारास वातापी ही चालुक्यांची राजधानी ताब्यात घेतली. याचवेळी दुसरा पुलकेशीही मारला गेला. इ.स.च्या ७ व्या शतकाच्या अखेरीस पल्लव व चालुक्य यांच्यातील संघर्ष काहिसा थंडावला. इ.स.च्या ८ व्या शतकाच्या पूर्वार्धात चालुक्य राजा दुसरा विक्रमादित्याने तीनवेळा कांचीवर हल्ला करून कांची जिंकण्याचा प्रयत्न केला. इ.स. ७४० मध्ये विक्रमादित्याने पल्लवांचा अतिशय दारूण पराभव केला. चालुक्यांकडून झालेल्या या पराभवानंतरही शंभर वर्षे पल्लव राज्यकर्ते तग धरून राहिले असले तरी चालुक्यांच्या या विजयामुळे पल्लवांची अतिदक्षिणेकडील श्रेष्ठता मात्र पूणपणे संपुष्टात आली.

The Pallava dynasty was a Tamil dynasty of South India which ruled the northern Tamil Nadu region and whole of Andhra Pradesh with their capital at Kanchipuram. The word Pallava in Sanskrit means branch. The Pallava dynasty is an offshoot of the Chola rulers . They expanded into the Guntur region of Andhra Pradesh. This area is still referred to as Palnadu or Pallava Nadu. Pallavas gained prominence after the eclipse of Satavahanas of Andhra and decline of Cholas in Tamil Nadu. The Pallavas patronized Tamil, Telugu and Sanskrit. Some of the most illustrious Sanskrit poets like Bharavi and Dandin and the seashore rock-cut temples of Mahabalipuram belongs to the Pallavan era.

Pallavas rose in power during the reign of Mahendravarman I (571630 CE) and Narasimhavarman I (630 – 668 CE) and dominated the Telugu and northern parts of the Tamil region for about six hundred years until the end of the 9th century.

Throughout their reign they were in constant conflict with both Chalukyas of Badami in the north and the Tamil kingdoms of Chola and Pandyas in the south and were finally defeated by the Chola kings in the 8th century CE.

Pallavas are most noted for their patronage of architecture, still seen today in Mahabalipuram. The Pallavas, who left behind magnificent sculptures and temples, established the foundations of medieval south Indian architecture. Chinese traveller Hiuen Tsang visited Kanchipuram during Pallava rule and extolled their benign rule.

Many sources describe Bodhidharma, the founder of the Zen school of Buddhism in China, as a prince of the Pallava dynasty, a contemporary of Skandavarman IV and Nandivarman I,[१] and the son of Simhavarman II, though this is debatable.[२]

Etymology[संपादन]

The word Pallava means branch in Sanskrit, in contrast with Chola meaning new country, Pandiya meaning old country and Chera meaning hill country in Sangam Tamil lexicon. The Pallavas are considered to be later offshoot of Cholas, who made Kanchipuram their capital and ruled Northern Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh (till Northern Circars). They have also conquered Southern Karnataka.

Origins[संपादन]

मुख्य पान: Origin of Pallava

The origins of the Pallavas are shrouded in myths and legends. The Pallavas are described to belong to the line of sage Bharadwaja. Aswattama the son of Drona once while being in a hermitage near the province of Funan in South-East Asia was visited upon by the celestial nymph called Menaka who sought his hand. The child that they begot was called Pallava. Several grants recollect this by seeing Pallava's valour to be equal to that of "Aswattaman who that night of war relentlessly fought the demonic army of Ghatotgacha the son of Bheema." This apart several Pallavas were praised to have mastered and practiced alongside arms, the agamic worship rituals (sarva agama sastra paradrushtva). This apart the Pallava insignia of mace Khatvanga of Lord Siva and conch Samudraghosham of lord Siva was also sported by Aswattama. It is also true that several Pallava princes who took charges in Kanchi came from many distant islands also where extended the authority of the great kings, let alone from Indian subcontinent.

Pallava Chronology[संपादन]

The rule of the Pallavas apparently starts as early as 275 CE, but their greatest epoch corresponds to the 7th and 8th century.[३]

Early Pallavas[संपादन]

The history of the early Pallavas has not yet been satisfactorily settled. The earliest documentation on the Pallavas is the three copper-plate grants,[४] belonging to Skandavarman I and written in Prakrit.[५] Skandavarman appears to have been the first great ruler of the early Pallavas, though there are references to other early Pallavas who were probably predecessors of Skandavarman.[६]

Skandavarman extended his dominions from the Krishna in the north to the Pennar in the south and to the Bellary district in the West. He performed the Aswamedha and other Vedic sacrifices and bore the title of 'Supreme King of Kings devoted to dharma'.[५]

In the reign of Simhavarman IV, who ascended the throne in 436 BC, the fallen prestige of the Pallavas was restored. He recovered the territories lost to the Vishnukundins in the north up to the mouth of the Krishna. The early Pallava history from this period onwards is furnished by a dozen or so copper-plate grants in Sanskrit. They are all dated in the regnal years of the kings.[७]

With the accession of Nandivarman I (480-500 BC), the decline of the early Pallava family was seen. The Kadambas had their aggressions and attacked even the headquarters of the Pallavas with the Pallavas taking retaliatory measures by expelling and invading Kadamba territories in Karnataka. In coastal Andhra the Vishnukundins established their ascendency. The Pallava authority was confined to Tondaimandalam.

With the accession of Simhavishnu, father of Mahendravarman I, c. 575 BC, the Pallava revival began in the south.

Later Pallavas[संपादन]

The rock-cut temples at Mamallapuram constructed during the reign of Narasimhavarma I
Elephant carved out of a single-stone

The incursion of the Kalabhras and the confusion in the Tamil country was broken by the Pandya Kadungon and the Pallava Simhavishnu.[८][९] The Pallava kingdom began to gain both in territory and influence over the South Indian peninsula and were a regional power by the end of the 6th century.[१०] The Pallavas exercised control over their southern neighbours of Cholas and Pandyas. But their history is marked by the continuous conflict with the Badami Chalukyas.[१०]

Narasimhavarma I and Paramesvaravarma I were the kings who stand out with glorious achievements in both military and architectural spheres. Nandivarma II built the Shore Temple.

Kadava kingdom[संपादन]

मुख्य पान: Kadava

During the thirteenth and the fourteenth centuries CE, a small principality of the Kadava dynasty came into brief prominence. These rulers claimed descent from the Pallavas. The notable rulers of this dynasty are Kopperunchinga I (reigned c.1216 - 1242 CE), and his son and successor Kopperunchinga II (c.1243 - 1279 CE). Together they extended the influence of their kingdom and played a major part in the ultimate demise of the Chola dynasty.

Religion[संपादन]

Pallavas were followers of Hinduism and made gifts of land to gods and brahmins. In line with the prevalent customs, some of the rulers performed the Aswamedha and other Vedic sacrifices.[७]

They were, however, tolerant of other faiths. The Chinese monk Xuanzang who visited Kanchipuram during the reign of Narasimhavarman I reported that there were 100 Buddhist monasteries, and 80 temples in Kanchipuram.[११]

Mahendravarman I was initially a patron of the जैन धर्म faith. He later re-converted to Hinduism under the influence of the Saiva saint Appar with the revival of Hinduism during the Bhakti movement in South India.[१२]

Pallava architecture[संपादन]

The Shore Temple at Mahabalipuram built by Narasimhavarman II

The Pallavas were instrumental in the transition from rock-cut architecture to stone temples. The earliest examples of Pallava constructions are rock-cut temples dating from 610–690 CE and structural temples between 690–900 CE. A number of rock-cut cave temples bear the inscription of the Pallava king, Mahendravarman I and his successors.[१३]

The greatest accomplishments of the Pallava architecture are the rock-cut temples at Mahabalipuram. There are excavated pillared halls and monolithic shrines known as rathas in Mahabalipuram. Early temples were mostly dedicated to Shiva. The Kailasanatha temple in Kanchipuram and the Shore Temple built by Narasimhavarman II are fine examples of the Pallava style temples.[१४]

See also[संपादन]

साचा:Middle kingdoms of India

नोंदी[संपादन]

  1. Kamil V. Zvelebil (1987). "The Sound of the One Hand", Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 107, No. 1, p. 125-126.
  2. Graeme Lyall. Seon - The Buddhism of Korea.
  3. Avari, p186
  4. Now referred to as the Mayidavolu, Hirahadagalli and the British Museum plates - Durga Prasad (1988)
  5. ५.० ५.१ Nilakanta Sastri, A History of South India, p91
  6. Nilakanta Sastri, A History of South India, pp91–92
  7. ७.० ७.१ Nilakanta Sastri, A History of South India, p92
  8. Kulke and Rothermund, p105
  9. Kulke and Rothermund, p120
  10. १०.० १०.१ Kulke and Rothermund, p111
  11. Kulke and Rothermund, pp121–122
  12. Appar
  13. Nilakanta Sastri, pp412–413
  14. Nilakanta Sastri, p139

References[संपादन]

  • Avari, Burjor (2007). India: The Ancient Past. New York: Routledge. 
  • Dubreuil, G. Jouveau; Dikshitar, V. S. Swaminadha (1995). The Pallavas. India: Asian Educational Services. आय.एस.बी.एन. 8120605748. 
  • Hermann, Kulke; Rothermund D [2000] (2001). A History of India. Routledge. आय.एस.बी.एन. 0-415-32920-5. 
  • Minakshi, Cadambi (1938). Administration and Social Life Under the Pallavas. Madras: University of Madras. 
  • Nilakanta Sastri, K.A [1955] (2002). A History of South India. New Delhi: OUP. 
  • Prasad, Durga (1988). History of the Andhras up to 1565 A.D.. Guntur, India: P.G. Publishers. 
  • South Indian Inscriptions. Archaeological Survey of India. What Is India Publishers (P) Ltd. 2008-05-30 रोजी पाहिले.


बाह्य दुवे[संपादन]

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