|हे पान अनाथ आहे.|
|जानेवारी २०११च्या सुमारास या पानाला विकिपीडियावरील इतर कोणत्याही पानावरुन दुवे नव्हते. या पानावरील माहितीशी सुसंगत पानांवरुन येथे दुवे द्या आणि मग हा साचा काढून टाका.|
द्राविडी लोकं (द्राविडीअन)
|कृपया या लेखाचा / विभागाचा विस्तार करण्यास मदत करा.
अधिक माहितीसाठी या लेखाचे चर्चा पान, विस्तार कसा करावा? किंवा इतर विस्तार विनंत्या पाहा.
|ह्या लेखाचा/विभागाचा इंग्रजी किंवा अमराठी भाषेतून मराठी भाषेत भाषांतर करावयाचे बाकी आहे. अनुवाद करण्यास आपलाही सहयोग हवा आहे. ऑनलाईन शब्दकोश आणि इतर सहाय्या करिता भाषांतर प्रकल्पास भेट द्या.
Dravidian people also Dravidians refers to the people who natively speak languages belonging to the Dravidian language family. Populations of speakers are found mostly in southern India. Other Dravidian people are found in parts of central India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Iran. Dravidian people with the most speakers (30-70 million each) are Telugus, Tamils, Kannadigas, Malayalis. Others with 1-5 million speakers each are Tuluvas, Gonds and Brahui.
The English word Dravidian was first employed by Robert Caldwell in his book of comparative Dravidian grammar based on the usage of the Sanskrit word drāvida in the work Tantravārttika by (Zvelebil 1990:xx). Caldwell coined the term "Dravidian" from the Sanskrit drāvida, which was used in an 8th-century text to refer to South India by Adi Shankara. The publication of the Dravidian etymological dictionary by T. Burrow and M. B. Emeneau was a landmark event in Dravidian linguistics.
As for the origin of the Sanskrit word ', there have been various theories proposed. Basically the theories are about the direction of derivation between ' and '. That is to say, while linguists such as Zvelebil assert that the direction is ' >' (ibid. page xxi), others state that the name Dravida also forms the root of the word Tamil (Dravida -> Dramila -> Tamizha or Tamil). साचा:Who
The word Dravida may also have its origin from Sanskrit 'Drava' - meaning water or sea. The word Dravidian may have been used to identify people living in India close to the sea. Since southern India is surrounded by sea on three sides, the word may been used predominantly to identify the inhabitants of these areas.[ संदर्भ हवा ]
There is no definite philological and linguistic basis for asserting unilaterally that the name Dravida also forms the origin of the word Tamil (Dravida -> Dramila -> Tamizha or Tamil). Zvelebil cites the forms such as dramila (in 's Sanskrit work Avanisundarīkathā) ' (found in Ceylonese chronicle Mahavamsa) and then goes on to say (ibid. page xxi): "The forms '/damila almost certainly provide a connection of dr(a/ā) " and "... ' < ' ...whereby the further development might have been *' > *' > '- / damila- and further, with the intrusive, 'hypercorrect' (or perhaps analogical) -r-, into dr(a/ā). The -m-/-v- alternation is a common enough phenomenon in Dravidian phonology" (Zvelebil 1990:xxi) Zvelebil in his earlier treatise (Zvelebil 1975: p53) states: "It is obvious that the Sanskrit dr(a/ā), Pali damila, ' and Prakrit d(a/ā) are all etymologically connected with '" and further remarks "The r in ' > dr(a/ā) is a hypercorrect insertion, cf. an analogical case of DED 1033 Ta. kamuku, Tu.kangu "areca nut": Skt. kramu(ka).". Further, another eminent Dravidian linguist Bhadriraju Krishnamurti in his book Dravidian Languages (Krishnamurti 2003:p2, footnote 2) states: "Joseph (1989: IJDL 18.2:134-42) gives extensive references for the use of the term ', dramila first as the name of a people, then of a country. Sinhala inscriptions BCE [Before Christian Era] cite '-, damela- denoting Tamil merchants. Early Buddhist and Jaina sources used '- to refer to a people of in south India (presumably Tamil); '- was a southern non-Aryan country; '-, ', and '- were used as variants to designate a country in the south (', Kādambarī, Daśakumāracarita-, fourth to seventh centuries CE) (1989: 134-8). It appears that '- was older than '- which could be its Sanskritization."
Based on what Krishnamurti states referring to a scholarly paper published in the International Journal of Dravidian Linguistics the Sanskrit word ' itself is later than ' since the dates for the forms with -r- are centuries later than the dates for the forms without -r- (', '-, damela- etc.). So it is clear that it is difficult to maintain Dravida -> Dramila -> Tamizha or Tamil.
Kamil V. Zvelebil has suggested that proto-Dravidian was part of a larger Elamo-Dravidian language family. However, George Starostin has disputed the existence of an Elamo-Dravidian language family .
According to a view put forward by geneticist Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza in the book The History and Geography of Human Genes, the Dravidians were preceded in the subcontinent by an Austro-Asiatic people, and followed by Indo-European-speaking migrants sometime later. The original inhabitants may be identified with the speakers of the Munda languages, which are unrelated to either Indo-Aryan or Dravidian languages. However, the Munda languages, as a subgroup of the larger Austro-Asiatic language family, are presumed to have arrived in the Indian subcontinent from the east, possibly from the area that is now southwestern China, so any genetic similarity between the present-day speakers of the Munda languages and the "original inhabitants" of India is likely to be due to assimilation of the natives by Southeast Asian immigrants speaking a proto-Munda language.
Some linguists believe that Dravidian-speaking people were spread throughout the Indian subcontinent before a series of Indo-Aryan migrations. In this view, the early Indus Valley civilization (Harappa and Mohenjo Daro) is often identified as having been Dravidian. Cultural and linguistic similarities have been cited by researchers such as Finnish Indologist Asko Parpola as being strong evidence for a proto-Dravidian origin of the ancient Indus Valley civilization.
Some scholars like J. Bloch and M. Witzel believe that the Dravidians moved into an already Indo-Aryan speaking area after the oldest parts of the Rig Veda were already composed. This theory might be supported if a higher antiquity of the Indo-Aryan languages could be established. However, since this theory is mainly a linguistic hypothesis, the Dravidian influence on Aryan languages need not necessarily be equated to a movement of populations.[ संदर्भ हवा ]
The Brahui population of Balochistan has been taken by some as the linguistic equivalent of a relict population, perhaps indicating that Dravidian languages were formerly much more widespread and were supplanted by the incoming Indo-Aryan languages.
Thomason & Kaufman (1988) state that there is strong evidence that Dravidian influenced Indic through "shift", that is, native Dravidian speakers learning and adopting Indic languages. Elst (1999) claims that the presence of the Brahui language, similarities between Elamite and Harappan script as well as similarities between Indo-Aryan and Dravidian indicate that these languages may have interacted prior to the spread of Indo-Aryans southwards and the resultant intermixing of languages. Erdosy (1995:18) states that the most plausible explanation for the presence of Dravidian structural features in Old Indo-Aryan is that the majority of early Old Indo-Aryan speakers had a Dravidian mother tongue which they gradually abandoned. Even though the innovative traits in Indic could be explained by multiple internal explanations, early Dravidian influence is the only explanation that can account for all of the innovations at once – it becomes a question of explanatory parsimony; moreover, early Dravidian influence accounts for the several of the innovative traits in Indic better than any internal explanation that has been proposed.
Zvelebil remarks that "Several scholars have demonstrated that pre-Indo-Aryan and pre-Dravidian bilingualism in India provided conditions for the far-reaching influence of Dravidian on the Indo-Aryan tongues in the spheres of phonology, syntax and vocabulary".
The genetic views on race differ in their classification of Dravidians. According to population geneticist L.L. Cavalli-Sforza of Stanford, based on work done in the 1980s, Indians are genetically Caucasian, but Lewontin rejects the label Caucasian. Cavalli-Sforza found that Indians are about three times closer to West Europeans than to East Asians. Dr. Eduardas Valaitis, in 2006, found that India is genetically closest to East and Southeast Asians with about 15% more genetic similarity than to Europeans; he also found that India could be considered very distinct from other regions. Genetic anthropologist Stanley Marion Garn considered in the 1960s that the entirety of the Indian Subcontinent to be a "race" genetically distinct from other populations. Others, such as Lynn B. Jorde and Stephen P. Wooding, claim South Indians are genetic intermediaries between Europeans and East Asians.
A number of earlier anthropologists held the view that the Dravidian peoples together were a distinct race[ संदर्भ हवा ]. Comprehensive genetic studies have proven that this is not the case. The genetic studies also indicated that the origin of both Dravidian and Indo-Aryan speakers is the Indian subcontinent. Recent studies of the distribution of alleles on the Y chromosome, microsatellite DNA, and mitochondrial DNA  in India have cast overwhelmingly strong doubt for a biologically identifiable "Dravidian race" distinct from non-Dravidians in the Indian subcontinent. The only distinct ethnic groups present in South Asia, according to genetic analysis, are the Balochi, Brahui, Burusho, Hazara, Kalash, Pathan and Sindhi peoples, the vast majority of whom are found in today's Pakistan.
In a 2009 study of 132 individuals, 560,000 SNPs in 25 different Indian groups were analyzed, providing strong evidence in support of the notion that modern Indians are a hybrid population descending from two pre-historic, genetically divergent populations[ संदर्भ हवा ], one of which, referred to as the 'Ancestral North Indians', aged 40.000 years and the other, called the 'Ancestral South Indians', aged 60.000 years. The intermingling of ANI's and ASI's happened in the same period as the ANI's first appeared, 40.000 years ago. The study also holds, that the caste system grew out of tribal-like organizations of the Indian society. In another study of 2009 conducted among 10 Asian countries, Dravidians were connected with the other Indian populations and peoples of Malaysia, Singapore and China.
भाषा /बोली [संपादन]
The best-known Dravidian languages are Tamil (தமிழ்), Telugu (తెలుగు), Kannada (ಕನ್ನಡ) and Malayalam (മലയാളം). There are three subgroups within the Dravidian linguistic family: North Dravidian, Central Dravidian, and South Dravidian, matching for the most part the corresponding regions in the Indian subcontinent.
Dravidian languages are spoken by more than 200 million people. They appear to be unrelated to languages of other known families like Indo-European, specifically Indo-Aryan, which is the other common language family on the Indian subcontinent. Some linguistic scholars incorporate the Dravidian languages into a larger Elamo-Dravidian language family, which includes the ancient Elamite language (Haltami) of what is now south-western Iran. Dravidian is one of the primary linguistic groups in the proposed Nostratic language system, linking almost all languages in North Africa, Europe and Western Asia into a common family with its origins in the Fertile Crescent sometime between the last Ice Age and the emergence of proto-Indo-European 4-6 thousand years BC. [ संदर्भ हवा ]
Dravidian grammatical impact on the structure and syntax of Indo-Aryan languages is considered far greater than the Indo-Aryan grammatical impact on Dravidian. Some linguists explain this anomaly by arguing that Middle Indo-Aryan and New Indo-Aryan were built on a Dravidian substratum.
वांशिक ओळख [संपादन]
"द्राविडी लोकां"ची संकल्पना [संपादन]
The term Dravidian is taken from the Sanskrit term Dravida, historically referring to Tamil. It was adopted following the publication of Robert Caldwell's Comparative grammar of the Dravidian or South-Indian family of languages (1856); a publication that established the language grouping as one of the major language groups of the world. Over seventy-three languages are presently listed as Dravidian. Further, the languages are spread out and cover parts of India, south eastern Iran, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. Robert Caldwell was an Anglican missionary and used the term Dravidian to refer to the people of South India.
Although in modern times speakers of the various Dravidian languages have mainly occupied the southern portion of India, nothing definite is known about the ancient domain of the Dravidian parent speech. It is, however, a well-established and well-supported hypothesis that Dravidian speakers must have been widespread throughout India, including the northwest region.
द्राविड/द्रविड लोकांची यादी [संपादन]
- Brahui people: People belonging to the north-Dravidian subgroup, mostly found in the Balochistan province of Pakistan. They now culturally and ethnically largely resemble the Balochi people around them, with whom they have mixed with substantially.[ संदर्भ हवा ]
- Gond people: A prominent group of Dravidian-speaking tribal people inhabiting the central region of India.
- Kannadiga: People belonging to the south-Dravidian subgroup. Mostly found in Karnataka and parts of northern Kerala and parts of southern महाराष्ट्र.
- Khonds: Tribal people who speak the Dravidian Kui language. Mostly found in the eastern Indian states of Orissa and Andhra Pradesh.
- Kodavas : They are settlers predominantly non - Dravidian settlers, who now speak the Kodava language[ संदर्भ हवा ]
- Kurukh: People belonging to the north-Dravidian subgroup. Found in India and Bangladesh. It is the only Dravidian language indigenous in Bangladesh.
- Malayali: People belonging to the south-Dravidian subgroup found primarily in Kerala, Lakshadweep and parts of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, महाराष्ट्र, दिल्ली and Middle East.
- Tamil: These people belong to south-Dravidian linguistic subgroup. Mostly found in Tamil Nadu, Singapore, Andaman and Nicobar, श्रीलंका, Malaysia and parts of Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and South Africa.
- Telugus: These people belong to south-Dravidian subgroup (formerly classified with the Central Dravidian but now more specifically in the South Dravidian II or South Central Dravidian inner branch of the South Dravidian (Krishnamurti 2003:p19)). Mostly found in Andhra Pradesh also in Orissa, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka.
- Tuluvas: People belonging to the south Dravidian subgroup, found in coastal Karnataka and northern Kerala, alternatively named Tulu Nadu.
हेही पहा [संपादन]
- Kamil V. 1974. "Dravidian and Elamite - A Real Break-Through?", Journal of the American Oriental Society 94.3 (July-Sept.): 384-5.
- "On The Genetic Affiliation Of The Elamite Language", in: Mother Tongue, Vol. 7, 2002.
- Stone celts in Harappa
- (see Bryant 2001: chapter 5)
- (Mallory 1989)
- Thomason & Kaufman (1988:141–144)
- Dravidian languages - Britannica Online Encyclopedia
- Robert Jurmain, Lynn Kilgore, Wenda Trevathan, and Harry Nelson. Introduction to Physical Anthropology. 9th ed. (Canada: Thompson Learning, 2003)
- Valaitis, E., Martin, L. DNA Tribes. 2006. January 22, 2007
- Garn SM. Coon. On the Number of Races of Mankind. In Garn S, editor. Readings on race. Springfield C.C. Thomas.
- Jorde LB, Wooding SP (Nov 2004). "Genetic variation, classification and 'race'". Nature genetics 36 (11 Suppl): S28–33. दुवा:10.1038/ng1435. PMID 15508000.
- Bamshad MJ, Wooding S, Watkins WS, Ostler CT, Batzer MA, Jorde LB (Mar 2003). "Human population genetic structure and inference of group membership". Am J Hum Genet. 72 (3): 578–89. दुवा:10.1086/368061. PMID 12557124.
- Rosenberg NA, Pritchard JK, Weber JL, et al. (Dec 2002). "Genetic structure of human populations". Science 298 (5602): 2381–5. दुवा:10.1126/science.1078311. PMID 12493913.
- Sahoo, Sanghamitra; Anamika Singh, G. Himabindu, Jheelam Banerjee, T. Sitalaximi, Sonali Gaikwad, R. Trivedi, Phillip Endicott, Toomas Kivisild, Mait Metspalu, Richard Villems and V. K. Kashyap (2006-01-24). "A prehistory of Indian Y chromosomes: Evaluating demic diffusion scenarios". Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences of United States of America 103 (4): 843–848. दुवा:10.1073/pnas.0507714103.
- Sengupta, S.; et al. (2006-02-01). "Polarity and temporality of high-resolution y-chromosome distributions in India identify both indigenous and exogenous expansions and reveal minor genetic influence of Central Asian pastoralists.". Am J Hum Genet. 78 (2): 201–221. The American Society of Human Genetics. PMID 16400607. Retrieved on 2007-12-03.
- Sharma, S.; Saha A, Rai E, Bhat A, Bamezai R. (2005). "Human mtDNA hypervariable regions, HVR I and II, hint at deep common maternal founder and subsequent maternal gene flow in Indian population groups.". J Hum Genet. 50 (10): 497–506. दुवा:10.1007/s10038-005-0284-2. Retrieved on 2007-12-03.
- Human Genome Diversity Project
- Krishnamurti, Bhadriraju (2003) The Dravidian Languages Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. ISBN 0-521-77111-0 at p. 40-41.
- Annamalai, E. (2003-11-07). Facts about Dravidian languages. 2008-09-17 रोजी पाहिले.
- Ethnologue study
- Dravidian language family study
- P. 678 Dancing With Siva: Hinduism's Contemporary Catechism, By Himalayan Academy, Satguru Sivaya Subramuniyaswami, Master Subramuniya.
- "Dravidian languages." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2008. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 5 June 2008
- Krishnamurti, B., The Dravidian Languages, Cambridge University Press, 2003. ISBN 0-521-77111-0, p19.
- Indian Genome Variation Consortium (Apr 2008). "Genetic landscape of the people of India: a canvas for disease gene exploration". Journal of genetics 87 (1): 3–20. दुवा:10.1007/s12041-008-0002-x. PMID 18560169.
बाह्य दुवे [संपादन]
- Dolmens, Hero Stones and the Dravidian People
- Harappa.com Glimpses of South Asia before 1947
- Peoples and Languages in pre-Islamic Indus valley